Saturday, June 3, 2017

5G Forecasts – The Past, Present and Future: 2008 – 2039 (Starting from LTE)

In this post, we will go through various 5G and pre-5G (LTE) related forecasts year-by-year, starting from 2008 and continuing all the way to 2039. This is a pretty massive amount of data, but the idea is that this post will serve as a "raw data set" for future blog posts for which I intend to process and analyze the data a bit for example by taking an average over the different forecasts for 5G subscriber growth for each year and showing that as a graph.

2008


Mobile subscriptions
  • There were 4,03 billion mobile subscriptions globally, up from 3,37 billion in 2007 [AR, WB].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • According to IHS Markit, the global mobile infrastructure market accounted for $41,5 billion in 2008 [IHS-5].
  • Dell’Oro Group says that HSPA was driving mobile infrastructure market growth [CN-2]. The market grew 5% over 2007.
Commercial LTE networks
  • There were no commercial LTE networks yet; the first ones were launched in late 2009.
Mobile phones and devices
  • Worldwide mobile phone sales surpassed 1,22 billion units in 2008, which was a 6% increase over 2007 sales [Gartner-2] The top two vendors were Nokia and Samsung. Their market shares were 38,6 and 16,3 percent, respectively.

2009


Mobile subscriptions
  • There were 4,636 billion mobile subscriptions globally [AR, WB].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • The first wave of LTE investment occurred in 2009 [ZTE].
  • According to IHS Markit, global LTE infrastructure spending accounted for $97 million [CN], whereas the total global mobile infrastructure market was around $38,6 billion [IHS-5].
Commercial LTE networks
  • The first commercial LTE network was launched in December 2009 [GSMA-2, FW-2].
  • By the end of 2009, there were 2 commercial LTE network deployments [GSA-2].
Mobile phones and devices
  • Worldwide mobile phone sales totaled 1,211 billion units in 2009, which was a 0.9% decline compared to 2008 [Gartner-3]. Smartphone sales reached 172,4 million units in 2009 with a 23,8% increase from 2008. The top two mobile phone manufacturers were Nokia and Samsung. Their market shares were 36,4 and 19,5 percent, respectively. Smartphone-focused vendors like Apple and RIM captured market share from other mobile phone manufacturers. Apple reached a 14.4% market share in the smartphone market.

2010


Mobile subscriptions
  • According to IHS, there were 612.000 LTE subscribers globally at the end of 2010 [FW-4]. 
  • According to Ovum, there were 225.000 4G subscriptions at the end of 2010 [LI].
  • According to the World Economic Forum, there were around 5,3 billion mobile subscriptions (all generations) in 2010 [WEF].
  • The World Bank reports 5,296 global cellular subscriptions [WB]. ITU puts the figure to 5,32 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • Global LTE infrastructure revenues accounted for $0,6 billion [MC-2].
  • According to IHS, global LTE infrastructure spending was $2 billion [EE, CN].
  • The size of the worldwide wireless infrastructure market was $38,98 billion [IHS-4].
  • Mind Commerce’s data shows that the global mobile infrastructure spending was around $42 or $45 billion in 2010 [JS, MC-3].
Commercial LTE networks
  • There were 16 live LTE networks globally [GSMA, GSA-2]

2011


Mobile subscriptions
  • According to IDATE, there were 9 million LTE connections globally at the end of 2011 [AF].  Mind Commerce’s puts the figure to 7 million [MC] and IHS to 13,2 million [FW-4].
  • According to the World Economic Forum, there were around 6 billion mobile subscriptions in 2011 [WEF]. ITU puts the figure to 5,89 billion [WB]. Yet another figure is 5,962 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • LTE infrastructure sales accounted for $2.1 billion based on data from Mind Commerce [MC] or $4,3 billion based on data from IHS [EE].
  • The size of the worldwide mobile infrastructure market was $42.5 billion [IHS-4].
  • According to MindCommerce, the global market for wireless network infrastructure was around $44 [MC-3] or $46 billion [JS].
Commercial LTE networks
  • Around 30 commercial LTE networks had been launched by the end of 2011 [CS-3]. 
  • According to TeleGeography, the figure was slightly higher, 39 [TG-2]. 
  • Mind Commerce says that 38 operators had launched LTE networks [MC]. 
  • GSMA’s data shows that there were 45 global live LTE networks by the end of 2011 [GSMA].
  • 5G America’s view is that there were 51 commercial LTE deployments by the end of 2011 [5GA-2].
Other
  • The market worth of the global LTE market was $19,1 billion in 2011 according to Mind Commerce [MC] or $5,95 billion according to Transparency Market Research [TMR]
  • LTE service revenues accounted for $15 billion [MC].
  • According to Strategy Analytics, LTE ARPU reached its peak level and was around $67 per month [Tele-3]. Strategy Analytics expects LTE ARPU to decline to $11 per month by 2022.

2012


Mobile subscriptions
  • There were 80 million LTE subscriptions globally at the end of 2012 [GSMA-3], or 92,3 million if one believes IHS [FW-4]. 5G America’s data shows 72 million LTE connections at the end of 2012 [5GA-2]. GSA reports 76 million LTE subscriptions by Q4 2012 [GSA-7].
  • Total global wireless subscribers hit 6 billion in 2012 [BW-2]
  • According to GSMA, there were 6,514 billion mobile subscriptions at the end of 2012 [GSMA-5].
  • According to the World Economic Forum, there were around 6,4 billion mobile subscriptions in 2012 [WEF]. ITU’s data shows 6,261 billion mobile subscriptions [WB]. Areppim's data shows 6,411 billion subscriptions [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • The size of the LTE infrastructure market was $3,9 billion in 2012 [CRT, IMH].
  • According to Visiongain, global spending on LTE infrastructure totaled $10,84 billion in 2012 [VG]. IHS's estimate is $8,7 billion [EE].
  • The global market for LTE (not only infrastructure but also everything else) was valued at $10,47 billion in 2012 [TMR].
  • The global mobile infrastructure market reached $45,5 billion by the end of 2012 [TP].
  • According to MindCommerce, the global market for wireless network infrastructure was around $50 billion [JS].
Commercial LTE networks
  • Around 100 commercial LTE networks had been launched by the end of 2012 [CS-3]. GSA puts the figure to 145 [BW-2] and GSMA to 138 [GSMA].
  • 5G America’s data shows there were 139 commercial LTE deployments by the end of 2011 [5GA-2].
Other
  • South Korea became the first country in the world to surpass 100% wireless broadband penetration [BW-2].

2013


Mobile subscriptions
  • There were 210 million LTE subscriptions globally at the end of 2013 [ER-4, GSMA-3]. According to 4G Americas, the figure was 229,7 million [DW]. GSA reports 212 million LTE subscriptions by Q4 2013 [GSA-7].
  • According to Ericsson, there were 6,8 billion worldwide mobile subscriptions at the end of 2013 [ER-4]. GSMA reports the same figure [SR].
  • Also according to the World Economic Forum, there were around 6,8 billion mobile subscriptions in 2013 [WEF]. ITU’s data shows 6,662 billion mobile subscriptions [WB]. Areppim's data shows 6,835 billion subscriptions [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • Infonetics’ estimate is that the size of the global LTE infrastructure market was around $13 billion in 2013 [TL-3]. Gartner puts the figure to $10,7 billion [SS].
  • According to SNS Research, the size of the global mobile infrastructure market was $52 billion in 2013, whereas Visiongain reports that the market size was $47 billion [WT].
  • According to MindCommerce, the global market for wireless network infrastructure was around $54 billion [JS]. According to Infonetics, the figure was $42,12 billion [BTR].
Commercial LTE networks
  • Around 275 commercial LTE networks had been launched by the end of 2013 [CS-3]. According to GSMA, the figure was 253 [GSMA]. 5G America’s estimate from August 2013 is 250 [GSA-2].
Mobile phones and devices
  • According to TrendForce, 286 million LTE devices were shipped in 2013 [TN-2].
Mobile traffic
  • According to Ericsson, data traffic per smartphone was 0,75 GB/month in 2013 [ER-4].
5G
  • The first 5G discussions started. In October 2013, NTT DoCoMo got attention by discussing the possibility of rolling out 5G in time for the Tokyo Olympics in 2020 [IHS-2]. South Korea set a target for pre-commercial 5G (or, in reality, more like 4.5G) for the PyeongChang Winter Olympics in 2018.

2014


Mobile subscriptions
  • There were 500 million LTE subscriptions globally at the end of 2014 [ER-3, GSMA-3], or 480 million according to IHS [ZTE].
  • GSA reports 506 million LTE subscriptions by Q4 2014 [GSA-7].
  • According to Ericsson, there were 7,1 billion worldwide mobile subscriptions in 2014 [ER-4].
  • GSA reports that there were around 7,2 billion mobile subscriptions at the end of 2014 [SR].
  • According to the World Economic Forum, there were around 7,1 billion mobile subscriptions in 2014 [WEF]. ITU’s data shows 7,008 billion mobile subscriptions [WB]. Areppim puts the figure to 7,2623 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • The size of the global LTE infrastructure market was around $22,5 billion [CS].
  • The global mobile infrastructure revenue was $46,8 billion [CS]. LTE alone pushed it up 10% over 2013 largely due to China Mobile’s massive TDD LTE deployment. LTE revenue grew 69% from 2013.
  • According to MindCommerce, the global market for wireless network infrastructure was around $54 billion [JS].
  • Market Reports Hub estimates that the global wireless network infrastructure market remained flat in 2014 compared to 2013 levels, thus accounting for $52 billion [ST].
  • China Mobile alone deployed 570.000 LTE eNodeBs in 2014 [CS-3].
  • A total of 1,036 million LTE eNodeBS were shipped globally [ZTE].
Commercial LTE networks
  • More than 325 commercial LTE networks had been launched by the end of 2014 [CS-3].  The corresponding figure from IHS is 360 commercial LTE networks in 124 countries. According to GSMA, the figure was 361 [GSMA].
  • There were 49 commercially available LTE-Advanced networks around the world [CS].
Mobile phones and devices
  • According to TrendForce, 383 million LTE devices were shipped in 2014 [TN-2].
  • Gartner says that over 0,45 billion LTE devices were shipped in 2014 [CIAJ].
Mobile traffic
  • Ericsson reports that data traffic per smartphone was 1,05 GB/month in 2014 [ER-4].
Other
  • According to ABI Research, LTE-Advanced covered its first 100 million people worldwide, four years after its inception [CS].

2015


Mobile subscriptions
  • There were 1,07 billion LTE subscriptions globally at the end of 2015 [ER-2, GSMA-3], or 1,102 billion according to GSA [GSA-3]. 5G Americas puts the figure to 1,1 billion [5GA-3].
  • GSA reports 1,102 billion LTE subscriptions by Q4 2015 [GSA-7].
  • 5G Americas’ data show that there were 3.6 billion GSM subscriptions and 2.2 billion HSPA connections at the end of 2015 [5GA-3].
  • Ericsson reports that there were 7,3 billion worldwide mobile subscriptions [ER-2].
  • According to GSMA, there were around 7,6 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2015 [SR].
  • According to the World Economic Forum, there were around 7.4 billion mobile subscriptions at the end of 2015 [WEF]. ITU’s data shows 7,194 billion mobile subscriptions [WB]. Areppim puts the figure to 7,5775 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • The global LTE infrastructure market peaked at $25.9 billion [CS-2, TL-4].
  • Mobile network equipment market was $40,6 billion (2.8% of the entire global telecom market) [5GF] or $43 billion according to IHS Markit [TTN].
  • The worldwide mobile infrastructure revenue totaled $48 billion [GSMA].
  • According to SNS Research, global 2G, 3G and 4G wireless infrastructure revenues were $65 billion in 2015 [TL-7].
  • Based on Market Report Hub’s CAGR estimate for the global mobile network infrastructure market, the market accounted for $50,96 billion in 2015 [ST].
Commercial LTE networks
  • GSA estimated that over 450 commercial LTE networks would be launched by the end of 2015 [CS]. According to IHS, the figure was 480 [FW-5]. GSMA puts the figure to 484 live LTE networks in 158 countries [GSMA]. GSA’s data shows around 460 LTE networks and 100 LTE-Advanced networks [GSA].
Mobile phones and devices
  • According to CCS Insight, the mobile phone market peaked at 2 billion units per year in 2015 [MWL-2].
  • TrendForce estimates that 610 million LTE devices were shipped in 2015 [TN-2].
  • Gartner reports that nearly 0,8 billion LTE devices were shipped in 2015 [CIAJ].
Mobile traffic
  • According to Ericsson, data traffic per smartphone was 1,4 GB/month in 2015 [ER-2].
Other
  • The telecom service market was $965,3 billion (66,6% of the entire global telecom market) [5GF].
  • The global telecom market was $1444,8 billion in 2015 [5GF].
  • Global mobile data revenue was $386 billion [PA].
  • Terminal market was $442,7 billion (30.6% of the entire global telecom market) [5GF].
  • In Japan, almost 80% of mobile service revenue came from data services [CS]. The US was approaching 60%.

2016

Mobile subscriptions
  • There were 1,74 billion LTE subscriptions globally at the end of 2016 [ER-2, GSMA-3], or 1,92 billion according to Ovum and GSA [GSA-3, GSA-7]. Cisco puts the figure to 2,072 billion [Cisco]. LTE subscriptions accounted for 25,1% of all mobile subscriptions globally [GSA-3].
  • 5G Americas’ data shows that there were 1,9 billion LTE subscriptions at the end of 2016 (25% of all subscriptions) [5GA-3]. The number of GSM subscriptions was 3 billion (41%). HSPA held a 30% share with 2,3 billion subscriptions.
  • In 2016, there were 400 million wide-area (e.g., 3GPP, Sigfox, LoRA, Ingenu) IoT and 5,2 billion short-range (e.g., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or ZigBee) IoT devices [ER-2]. LTE’s share of cellular IoT devices was around 5% [ER-2].
  • Mobile broadband connections (3G and 4G) accounted for 55% of total mobile connections [GSMA].
  • 65% of the world’s population had a mobile subscription resulting in 4,8 billion unique subscribers [GSMA].
  • According to Ericsson, there were 7,5 billion worldwide mobile subscriptions [ER-2]. The corresponding figure from 5G Americas is 7,6 billion [5GA-3].
  • According to GSMA, there were 7,882 billion mobile subscriptions at the end of 2016 [GSMA-5]. Areppim puts the figure to 7,8295 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • The size of the worldwide market for end-to-end LTE network infrastructure was $20,9 billion [BR].
  • On a year-over-year basis, the global macrocell mobile infrastructure market declined by 14%, confirming that the market has entered the post-LTE-peak era. LTE was down by 16% year-over-year [CS-2].
  • IHS Markit expects the LTE market to decline at a CAGR of -12.4% from 2015 to 2021 [CS-2, TTN]. Based on this estimate, the size of the global LTE infrastructure market accounted for $22,7 billion in 2016.
  • Gartner’s estimate is that the size of the global mobile network equipment market was $42,9 billion in 2016 [5GF]. IHS reports $43 billion, down from $48 billion in 2015 (a CAGR of -10%) [CS-2].
  • Operators had invested $1,2 trillion in capex since 2010. However, mobile capex levels fell by 6% compared to 2015 [GSMA]. Over the medium term, GSMA expects that capex levels will continue to decline but at a slower rate.
  • No true commercial NB-IoT networks where customers would be charged for usage were not yet launched in 2016 [TL-2].
  • The 5G equipment market is expected grow at a CAGR of 32.06% during the period 2016-2020 [BW, MW].
  • Based on Market Report Hub’s CAGR estimate for the global mobile network infrastructure market, the market accounted for $49,9 billion in 2016 [ST].
  • Small cell, carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN, and DAS investments were estimated to account for nearly $13 billion by the end of 2016 [TL].
  • SNS Research expected mobile operators to invest over $7 billion in C-RAN infrastructure rollouts by the end of 2016 [SNS-4]. SNS expects the market to grow at a CAGR of nearly 20% between 2016 and 2020.
  • Reports and Reports expected the global 2G, 3G, and 4G wireless infrastructure revenues to be $65 billion in 2016 [SP]. Small cell and carrier Wi-Fi equipment were expected to represent a market worth of $3 billion in 2016.
Commercial LTE networks
  • There were 580 live LTE networks in 188 countries [GSMA].
  • GSA expected around 540 commercial LTE networks and around 160 LTE-Advanced networks by the end of 2016 [GSA].
Mobile phones and devices
  • Business Insider reports that there were 6,6 billion IoT devices in 2016 [BI-2].
  • Gartner expected that over 0,95 billion LTE devices would be shipped in 2016 [CIAJ].
Mobile data traffic
  • According to Ericsson, data traffic per smartphone was 1,9 GB/month in 2016 [ER-2].
  • Global mobile data traffic was 7 exabytes per month in 2016 [Cisco].
5G
  • According to Gartner, there has never been as much emphasis on investing in the next generation of networks so far in advance of settled standards as there has been with 5G [Gartner].
  • The work plan for 3GPP Release 15, which includes the first set of 5G specifications was ratified at the plenary meeting of the TSG#72 (Technical Specification Group) 3GPP working group in June 2016 [ARC]. 5G standardization work by TSG SA2 (Technical Specification Group System Architecture) started in December 2016.
Other
  • According to CCS Insight, 1,42 billion smartphones were shipped in 2016 [MWL]. Smartphones accounted for almost 75% of the mobile phone market.
  • Nearly 60% of the worldwide population owned a mobile phone and used it at least once a month [EM].
  • SNS Research estimates that LTE service revenues accounted for over $600 Billion in 2016 [SNS-2, GNW-2]. The figure is further expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 5% until the end of 2020.
  • Total mobile revenues reached $1,05 trillion (up by 2,2% from 2015) [GSMA].
  • The global Telecom Infrastructure Services (TIS) global market declined 0,3% year-over-year to $96,2 billion in 2016 [TBR]. The TIS market entered a challenging period for the next three years (2017-2019) as mobile broadband investment declines, legacy infrastructure is increasingly decommissioned and NFV/SDN reduces demand for product-attached services. The market is expected to continue declining until 2020, which is when 5G deployments will return it back to growth.
  • According to Analysys Mason, in 2016, revenue from IoT accounted for less than 1% of most operators’ total revenue [TL-2].
  • RnRMarketResearch expected LTE service revenues to account for over $600 billion in 2016 [PRNW-3].
  • T-Mobile Netherlands launched an NB-IoT network in five locations across the country in October 2016 [EII-2].
  • According to Cisco 52% (38,4 exabytes) of the global Internet traffic was on CDNs in 2016 [QZ]. 
  • Qualcomm demonstrated the first over-the-air connection of MulteFire in October 2016 [EII-3].

2017

Mobile subscriptions
  • GSA expects 2,457 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2017 [GSA-7].
  • GSMA expects there to be 2,28 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2017 [GSMA-3].
  • ABI Research estimates that there were roughly 2 billion people with LTE subscriptions in March 2017 [PCW].
  • Ovum forecasts 1,9 billion LTE subscriptions (24.5% of all mobile subscriptions) by the end of 2017 [TL-5].
  • ABI Research estimates that LTE's share of all mobile subscriptions was 30% in 2017 [ME-3]. Gigabit LTE will see nearly two million subscriptions by the end of 2017.
  • 5G Americas predicts there will be 2,5 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2017 [TL-6].
  • GSMA forecasts around 8,2 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2017 [SR].
  • According to the World Economic Forum, there will be around 8 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2017 [WEF]. Areppim's estimate is 8,0274 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • IHS predicts that the global LTE infrastructure market will be around $17 billion in 2017 [TL-3, EL]. Another figure based on an IHS LTE infrastructure market CAGR estimate is $19,9 billion [TTN].
  • SNS Research expects that mobile operators will spend more than $250 Million on pre-standards 5G network rollouts by the end of 2017 [SNS].
  • Technavio forecasts that the 5G network equipment market will be $3.92 billion by the end of 2017 [AMG].
  • Dell’Oro Group expects the total RAN market to decline in 2017 at a high single-digit rate, stabilize during 2018-2020, and grow again in 2021 [DO].
  • Gartner estimates that the size of the global mobile network equipment market will reach $46,7 billion by the end of 2017 [5GF].
  • MindCommerce expects the global market for wireless network infrastructure to be around $50 billion in 2017 [JS].
  • SNS Research expects that due to a decline in macrocell RAN infrastructure spending, the wireless network infrastructure market will remain relatively flat between 2017 and 2020, with annual investments of over $61 billion [FOX].
  • Based on Market Reports Hub’s CAGR estimate for the global mobile network infrastructure market, the market could account for $48,9 billion in 2017 [ST].
Commercial LTE and 5G networks
  • As of January 30, 2017, 581 commercial LTE networks had been launched [CS-2]. According to IHS Markit, all indicators point to a year of LTE decline in 2017 as a result of diminishing rollouts worldwide.
  • GSA expects around 590 commercial LTE networks and around 230 LTE-Advanced networks by the end of 2017 [GSA]. The latest update to the figures is 646 commercially launched LTE networks and 195 LTE-Advanced or LTE Advanced Pro networks by the end of 2017 [GSA-4]. According to GSA, 774 operators were investing in LTE in 202 countries at the end of March 2017. In May 2017, 801 operators were investing in LTE [GSA-5].
  • ABI Research expects more than 15 operators to have gigabit LTE by the end of 2017 [PCW].
  • By the end of 2017, over 200 carriers are likely to be offering LTE-A across some of their network, and over 20 should have LTE-A Pro networks [Deloitte].
  • A few (around 5 or less) operators will have introduced early commercial 5G services of some sort [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
  • SK Telecom is planning to perform a large-scale pre-commercial 5G deployment by the end of 2017 [LR]. In early May, KT, which is South Korea’s second largest mobile operator, said it is in the final stages of testing a new pre-standard 5G trial network [MWL-3]. Also Verizon and Telia have announced plans to launch pre-standard 5G services as early as 2017 [TA-3].
  • AT&T and Verizon aim to begin 5G fixed wireless rollouts during 2017 [FW]. In January 2017, Verizon revealed that it had installed pre-standard 5G equipment for fixed wireless services in more than 10 cities in the US [FW].
  • According to GSA, by April 2017, 19 operators had commercially launched some aspect of LTE-Advanced Pro [TMN, GSA-6]. These included 4 NB-IoT networks (Telus Canada, T-Mobile Netherlands, Telia Norway, and Vodafone Spain) and 12 LTE-M networks. 40 further NB-IoT networks are planned to be launched. A further 26 operators were trialling, deploying or planning LTE-Advanced Pro networks exhibiting multiple 3GPP Release 13 features such as those related to carrier aggregation, modulation scheme, MIMO, latency, and MCPTT (Mission-Critical Push-to-Talk).
  • Japan started a trial of a 5G system in May 2017 in Tokyo as well in rural areas [RCR-3]. The trials are expected to continue for three years. Commercial launches of 5G are expected to happen in 2020.
5G
  • Specification of 5G NR started in 3GPP TSG RAN in March 2017 [ARC].
  • Strand Consult believes that in 2017, people are likely to recognize that most 5G services can run on 4G networks and therefore it is not necessary to deploy a specialized 5G network [Strand]. Strand Consult predicts that the change from 4G to 5G will not be as dramatic as from 3G to 4G, 2G to 3G, or 1G to 2G.
  • BMI Research notes that many stakeholders have their own specific interests hyping 5G [BMI]. These include creating a new revenue stream or to differentiate in the marketplace.
  • More risks and challenges for 5G are listed in an earlier blog post on The Edge of the Cloud blog.
  • A survey by TIA from March 2017 indicated that 26% of operators are planning to trial 5G by March 2019 [GNW-3]. Almost half of the surveyed operators expect to have made 5G investments as part of their capital expenditure budgets by the end of 2020. 33% of operator respondents expect they will offer commercial 5G services by 2020.
Mobile phones and devices
  • CCS Insight expects that 1,53 billion smartphones and 0,46 billion feature phones will be shipped in 2017 [CCS, ME-2].
  • Gartner expects that over 1,1 billion LTE devices will be shipped in 2017 [CIAJ].
  • Deutsche Telekom said in May 2017 that NB-IoT module costs were still far too high for its business customers [LR-4]. The module cost was between €10 and €15 rather than the €5 target that 3GPP and DT are aiming for. In June 2016 the cost of a Sigfox module was $2 and it is expected to fall to $0,50 by 2021.
Mobile data traffic
  • Cisco expects the global mobile data traffic to be 11 exabytes per month in 2017 [Cisco].
Other
  • LTE carries about 67% of all mobile traffic in 2017 [PCW].
  • ABI Research is forecasting that industrial manufacturing applications will generate more than $138 million in 2017 from cellular and satellite connectivity fees [5GA]. By the end of 2017, there will be 53 million IIoT connections. 25% of the new IIoT connections added during 2017 will be wireless.
  • 3GPP will complete technical specifications for non-standalone 5G NR in Q4 2017 [BMI].
  • TBR predicts that the size of the global telecom infrastructure services market will decline to $95,1 billion (from $96,2 billion in 2016) [TBR].
  • TBR expects that operators and telecom vendors will be in 2017-2019 under pressure to engage in more consolidation to protect the revenue and profit pools of their traditional businesses while diversifying into new areas [TBR].
  • TBR predicts that professional services will be the fastest growing telecom services segment during 2017-2021 [TBR]. The growth is driven by operators’ need to pursue operations and business transformation. Product-attached services like deployment and maintenance spend will decline due to slowing down of mobile broadband deployments, legacy infrastructure being decommissioned, and cost savings from NFV, SDN, and cloud being realized. Demand for managed services is expected to stay robust. However, new large-scale managed network operation contracts are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Market share will concentrate increasingly around the largest telecom infrastructure services suppliers since they are expected to engage in M&A to boost capabilities especially in software and professional services.
  • Northstream predicts that NFV will take off in 2017 [Telco]. The adoption is driven by services like VoLTE, carrier cloud, Wi-Fi calling, service chaining, resource sharing and network slicing.
  • TBR predicts that most Tier 1 operators will adopt NFV and SDN in 2017 and 2018 [Telco]. Global enterprise SDN is expected to grow at a CAGR of 72% through 2020.
  • Analysys Mason expects that first customers paying for access to NB-IoT networks will appear in 2017 [TL-2]. Significant increases in the number of users are not expected until the end of year, as more modules become available and network coverage increases.
  • Global autonomous robot market is expected to be $33,6 billion in 2017 and reach $41,6 billion in 2025 [5GF].
  • Vodafone Netherlands activated its NB-IoT network in 20 locations across Netherlands in June 2017 [EII-2]. Earlier during the year, the operator conducted its first successful LTE-M test.
  • According to Cisco 57% (54 exabytes) of the global Internet traffic will be CDNs in 2017 [QZ]. 
  • Qualcomm expects to see initial lab trials of MulteFire by the end of the year and early 2018, with some field trials based on testing prototypes [EII-3].

2018


Mobile subscriptions
  • GSA expects 3,066 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2018 [GSA-7].
  • Ovum forecasts 2,4 billion LTE subscriptions (30% of all mobile subscriptions) by 2018 [TL-5].
  • GSMA expects that there will be 2,75 billion LTE connections by the end of 2018 [GSMA-3].
  • 5G Americas predicts there will be 3,1 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2018 [TL-6].
  • IDATE forecasts that LTE subscriptions will reach 3 billion in 2018 [ID-2].
  • According to Ericsson, there will be over 9 billion mobile subscriptions globally by the end of the year [ER-7].
  • GSMA forecasts around 8,3 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2018 [SR].
  • Also the World Economic Forum expects around 8,3 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2018 [WEF]. Areppim's estimate is 8,1808 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • IHS Markit expects the global LTE infrastructure market to decline at a CAGR of -12.4% from 2015 to 2021 [CS-2]. Thus, the size of the market could be around $17,4 billion by the end of 2018.
  • Gartner estimates that the size of the global mobile network equipment market will reach $52,1 billion by the end of 2018 [5GF].
  • Technavio forecasts that the 5G network equipment market will reach $5.12 billion by the end of 2018 [AMG].
  • SNS Research predicts that global pre-standard 5G network investments will total at $<removed> billion in 2018 [SNS-3].
  • SNS Research expects that due to a decline in macrocell RAN infrastructure spending, the wireless network infrastructure market will remain relatively flat between 2017 and 2020, with annual investments of over $61 billion [FOX].
  • Based on Market Research Hub’s CAGR estimate for the global mobile network infrastructure market, the market will account for $47,96 billion in 2018 [ST].
Commercial LTE and 5G networks
  • A few (around 5 or less) operators will have introduced early commercial 5G services of some sort [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
  • GSA predicts that around 630 operators will have introduced LTE networks [GSA].
  • GSA predicts that around 305 operators will have introduced LTE-Advanced networks [GSA].
  • In a survey done by TIA, 3% of the interviewed operators indicated that they plan to introduce a commercial 5G core and radio network at the latest by 2018 [SC].
5G
  • 3GPP will complete technical specifications for standalone 5G NR in Q2 2018 [BMI] which is when Release 15 will be complete [ARC].
  • According to Strategy Analytics, the first trial 5G handsets expected to emerge in 2018 are likely to suffer from issues such as short battery life, no 4G handover or unstable connectivity [TA-2].
  • AT&T has indicated that it is likely to be able to launch standards-based mobile 5G services as soon as late 2018 [TG].
Mobile phones and devices
  • CCS Insight expects that 1,64 billion smartphones and 0,38 billion feature phones will be shipped in 2018 [CCS].
  • Gartner expects that around 1,3 billion LTE devices will be shipped in 2018 [CIAJ].
Mobile data traffic
  • Cisco forecasts that the global mobile data traffic will be 17 exabytes per month in 2018 [Cisco].
Other
  • The global market for public safety networks is expected to reach $28,8 billion in 2018 and $43,2 billion in 2025 (a CAGR of 5,9%).
  • ABI Research expects LTE-Advanced coverage to reach 1 billion by the end of 2018, up from 100 million in 2014 [CS].
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) market will diversify to personal and public use cases from military use cases. It will reach $4,8 billion in 2018 and $5,4 billion in 2025 [5GF].
  • TBR predicts that the size of the global telecom infrastructure services market will decline to $94,4 billion (from $95,1 billion in 2017) [TBR].
  • Cisco predicts that 61% (73 exabytes) of the global Internet traffic will be CDNs in 2018 [QZ]. 

2019


Mobile subscriptions
  • GSA expects 3,698 billion LTE subscriptions by 2019 [GSA-7].
  • Ovum forecasts 3 billion LTE subscriptions (35% of all mobile subscriptions) by 2019 [TL-5].
  • GSMA’s forecast is that there will be 3,21 LTE connections globally by the end of 2019 [GSMA-3].
  • 5G Americas predicts there will be 3,7 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2019 [TL-6].
  • Ericsson expects 2,6 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2019 [ER-6].
  • Ericsson forecasts 9,3 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2019 [ER-6].
  • GSMA forecasts around 8,5 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2019 [SR].
  • The World Economic Forum expects around 8,6 billion mobile subscriptions by 2019 [WEF]. Areppim's estimate is 8,2983 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • Gartner estimates that the size of the global mobile network equipment market will reach $56,7 billion by the end of 2019 [5GF]. However, IHS Markit projects the global mobile infrastructure market to decline to $28,5 billion by 2019 [IHS-3].
  • Infonetics Research expects the mobile infrastructure market to drop by almost from nearly $47 billion in 2014 to $27 billion in 2019 [CS]. This is because the end of macrocell deployments is reached globally.
  • Based on Market Research Hub’s CAGR estimate for the global mobile network infrastructure market, the market will account for $47 billion in 2019 [ST].
  • SNS Research expects that due to a decline in macrocell RAN infrastructure spending, the wireless network infrastructure market will remain relatively flat between 2017 and 2020, with annual investments of over $61 billion [FOX].
  • IHS Markit’s forecast from 2015 for the size of the global LTE infrastructure market is around $12,5 billion [EL]. Based on a later CAGR estimate from IHS, the market size could be $15,3 billion [TTN]. In 2017, IHS expected the global LTE infrastructure market to decline at a CAGR of -12.4% from 2015 to 2021 [CS-2]. Thus, the size of the market could be around $16,63 billion by the end of 2019.
  • IHS Markit expects the global 5G mobile infrastructure revenue to be around $60 million [CS-2].
  • Technavio forecasts that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $6,88 billion by the end of 2019 [AMG].
  • Based on SNS Research’s CAGR estimate, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $1,2 billion in 2019 [TL-9].
  • Markets and Markets expects that the size of the global 5G network infrastructure market will be around $1,16 billion in 2019 [GNW].
  • Based on Market Reports Center’s CAGR estimate for 5G network infrastructure, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $1,16 billion in 2019 [PRNW-4].
  • Gartner expects the global sales of routers and switches for telecom carriers to reach around $20 billion per year in 2019, which is 1,4 times the 2014 figure [CIAJ]
  • ZTE expects to see initial revenues from the sale of standardized 5G equipment in 2019 [RCR-2]. Higher revenues will come from 2020 onwards.
Commercial LTE and 5G networks
  • Around 7 operators will have introduced early commercial 5G services [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
  • GSA said in April 2017 that 18 operators are committed to implementation based on pre-standards 5G technology by or before 2019 [TMN]. These include for example Etisalat, Telia, TIM and Verizon.
  • GSA predicts that around 660 operators will have introduced LTE networks [GSA].
  • GSA predicts that around 380 operators will have introduced LTE-Advanced networks [GSA].
  • South Korea plans to complete deployment of a commercial 5G network in the second half of 2019 [MWL-3]. KT in South Korea plans to launch commercial 5G services in 2019 [GSMA-4].
  • T-Mobile US has announced that it plans to start rolling out a 5G network in the US in 2019 [Reuters].
Mobile phones and devices
  • CCS Insight expects that 1,74 billion smartphones and 0,30 billion feature phones will be shipped in 2019 [CCS].
  • Gartner predicts that the number of LTE devices will reach 1,414 billion in 2019, which is three times the figure in 2014 [CIAJ].
  • Qualcomm is anticipating that the first 5G capable smartphones will be arriving commercially in 2019 [SA]. However, Strategy Analytics expects that first commercial 5G devices will arrive in 2020.
  • ZTE believes that by 2019 and 2020, it will have some commercial offering of 5G handsets [RCR-2].
Mobile data traffic
  • Cisco forecasts that global mobile data traffic will be 24 exabytes per month in 2019, up from 7 exabytes per month in 2016 [Cisco].
Other
  • BMI Research’s view is that demand for 5G will remain niche at launch since there is yet no real business case for 5G services [BMI].
  • 5G will arrive in a number of phases [GSMA]. The pre-emptive phase will comprise Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) networks using mmWave spectrum (as exemplified by for instance Verizon). The first commercial 5G cellular networks will launch in late 2019 and early 2020. They will be built on evolved LTE (3GPP Release 15) and will offer increased performance. However, there will be a handful of pre-5G wireless networks including those linked to sporting events taking place ahead of the standardization date. 5G’s second phased, based on Release 16, will deliver mobile data over mmWave frequencies. 3GPP Release 16 will be completed in December 2019 [3GPP].
  • TBR predicts that the size of the global telecom infrastructure services market will decline to $94,1 billion (from $94,4 billion in 2018) [TBR].
  • Cisco predicts that 65% (97,8 exabytes) of the global Internet traffic will be CDNs in 2019 [QZ]. 

2020


Mobile subscriptions
  • Ovum forecasts 3,6 billion LTE subscriptions (42% of all mobile subscriptions) by 2020 [TL-5].
  • GSMA’s expectation is that compared to 2016, the number of LTE connections has increased a third [GSMA] and will amount to 3,63 billion globally [GSMA-3].
  • RnRMarketResearch expects 2,2 billion LTE connections by 2020 [MM].
  • IDATE forecasts that LTE subscriptions will reach a little less than 5 billion in 2020 [ID-2].
  • 5G Americas predicts there will be 4,3 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2020 [TL-6].
  • GSA predicts 4,268 billion LTE subscriptions by December 2020 [GSA-7]. The figure is from March 2017. GSA’s earlier estimate, from March 2016, was 3,8 billion [GSA-2].
  • Juniper Research expects that the number of active LTE connections will exceed 3 billion globally by 2020 [TC].
  • GSMA estimates that 4G coverage will have reached 75% of the world’s population [GSMA]. 75% of all mobile connections will be 3G or 4G [GSMA]. However, 150 countries will still have 4G adoption at less than 30% of connections.
  • GSMA forecasts zero 5G connections and 8% coverage (as percentage of population) for 5G in 2020 [GSMA].
  • Cisco expects 2,3 million 5G connections in 2020 [Cisco]. The figure excludes M2M.
  • Strategy Analytics forecasts 2 million 5G connections in 2020 [PRNW-2]. The figure does not include vertical/industrial applications.
  • BMI Research predicts that there will be around 15 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2020 [BMI].
  • Parks Associates expects 17,2 million 5G consumer market subscriptions globally by the end of 2020 [PA].
  • GSMA expects 860 million new mobile subscribers compared to 2016, meaning that there will be 5,7 billion mobile subscribers (which corresponds to 75% of world’s population) [GSMA].
  • Huawei’s mLAB forecasts that the number of MBB users will double to 6,7 billion from 2015 to 2020 [Huawei].
  • Ericsson forecasts 9,2 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2020 [ER-4].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum is predicting 10,7 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2020 [UKS].
  • According to an extrapolation done by University of Surrey, there could be around 8,6 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2020 [SR].
  • GSMA forecasts 9,7 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2020 [GSMA-5].
  • The World Economic Forum expects around 8,9 billion mobile subscriptions by 2020 [WEF]. Areppim's estimate is 8,3876 billion [AR].

Mobile infrastructure market

  • GSMA expects that global mobile capex levels will return to growth in 2020 after continued decline since 2015 as operators in advanced telecom markets will begin to invest in 5G infrastructure [GSMA].
  • IHS Markit expects the global LTE infrastructure market to decline at a CAGR of -12,4% from 2015 to 2021 [CS-2]. Thus, the size of the market could be around $13,4 billion by the end of 2020.
  • Gartner forecasts that the worldwide market for end-to-end LTE network infrastructure will be $36,6 billion in 2020 and will account for 70% of all spending on mobile network infrastructure [BR].
  • ETRI Forum predicts that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $1,04 billion in 2020 [5GF, 5GE].
  • Technavio forecasts that the 5G network equipment market will be $9,56 billion by the end of 2020 [AMG].
  • Based on Market Reports Center’s CAGR estimate for 5G network infrastructure, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $1,97 billion in 2020 [PRNW-4].
  • SNS Research expects LTE and 5G infrastructure investments to account for $32 billion in 2020 [GNW-2]. This includes spending on distributed macrocells, small cells, C-RAN architecture equipment, and mobile core solutions.
  • SNS Research expects that due to a decline in macrocell RAN infrastructure spending, the wireless network infrastructure market will remain relatively flat between 2017 and 2020, with annual investments of over $61 billion [FOX]. In 2015, the size of the market was $65 billion [NGC]. SNS expects a significant shift in investments towards small cells, C-RAN, DAS and carrier Wi-Fi infrastructure. These four submarkets together with their fronthaul and backhaul segments, are expected to account for over 50% of all wireless infrastructure spending by 2020.
  • Based on SNS Research’s CAGR estimate, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $2,0 billion in 2020 [TL-9].
  • SNS Research expects that global investments on C-RAN architecture networks could reach up to $14,5 billion per year by 2020, up from $7 billion in 2016 [SNS-4].
  • IHS forecasts that the size of the global mobile infrastructure market will be around $48 billion in 2020 [TL-8].
  • ETRI Industrial Strategy Research Lab estimates that the size of the global mobile network equipment market will be $60,2 billion in 2020 [5GF].
  • Accenture estimates that in the US, the network deployment build of 5G will involve 10 to 100 times more antenna locations than 4G or 3G [ACC].
  • Technavio predicts that there will be approximately 30,000 small cell nodes in the US by 2020 that handle LTE-Advanced and mobile 5G applications [BW].
  • ABI Research expects 8,5 million small cells to be deployed globally by 2020 [TTV].
  • According to ABI Research, large-scale telco cloud deployments will reach global critical mass after 2020, in parallel with the deployment for 5G. This is because 5G requires a new core network to enable network slicing and services geared toward different business verticals [WDO].
  • According to Markets and Markets, the global DAS market is expected to reach $9,18 billion by 2020. It will grow at a CAGR of 7,11% between 2015 and 2020 [TL]. Small cells, C-RAN, DAS, and carrier Wi-Fi infrastructure, together with their fronthaul and backhaul segments, will account for over 50% of all wireless network infrastructure spending by 2020.

Commercial LTE and 5G networks
  • GSA predicts that around 680 operators have introduced LTE networks by the end of 2020 [GSA].
  • GSA predicts that around 430 operators have introduced LTE-Advanced networks by the end 2020 [GSA].
  • SNS Research expects that over 150 LTE operators have deployed carrier aggregation technology by 2020 [GNW-2]. Over 50% of all LTE subscribers will be supported by LTE-Advanced networks.
  • Around 15 operators will have introduced early commercial 5G services [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
  • NTT DoCoMo plans to launch commercial 5G services in 2020 [GSMA-4]. China Mobile plans to deploy 10.000 5G base stations by 2020 [CD]. In July 2016, major European operators published a 5G manifesto, which indicates a target of launching 5G in at least one city in each of the EU member states by 2020. Etisalat will launch a nationwide 5G network in time for Expo 2020 in the UAE.
  • In a survey done by TIA, 20% of the interviewed operators indicated that they plan to launch commercial 5G core and radio networks at the latest by 2020 [SC].
  • T-Mobile has announced that it targets full nationwide 5G coverage in the US by 2020 [TM]. To achieve this, T-Mobile plans to use its 600 MHz spectrum band, 200 MHz of spectrum in the 28/39 GHz bands, as well as mid-band spectrum [TM-2].
  • The Japanese government has set a goal of having 5G by the Tokyo Olympics in 2020 [CS]. Commercial launches of 5G are expected to happen in Japan in 2020 [RCR-3].
Mobile data traffic
  • Ericsson predicts that data traffic per smartphone will be 4,9 GB/month by 2020 [ER-4].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 5.3 GB/month [UKS].
  • Cisco forecasts that the global mobile data traffic will be 35 exabytes per month in 2020, up from 7 exabytes per month in 2016 [Cisco].
Smartphones and devices
  • CCS Insight expects that 1,82 billion smartphones and 0,23 billion feature phones will be shipped in 2020 [CCS].
  • Mobile phones with LTE are expected to account for 1,65 billion units in 2020 [MWL-2].
Other
  • The global telecom market is expected to grow to $1.757,6 billion in 2020 (from $1.444,8 billion in 2015; a CAGR of 3.9%) [5GF].
  • By 2020, the voice service market is forecast to decline at a CAGR of -4,9% from 2015 levels [GSMA]. The data service market will grow at a CAGR of 8,3%.
  • Global 5G service revenues will be $100 million according to Juniper Research [Juniper-1, EIT] or $26,4 billion if one trusts 5G Forum’s estimate [5GF].
  • According to SNS Research, LTE networks will generate nearly $800 billion in annual service revenue by 2020 [TL-7].
  • Over $6 billion will be spent on 5G R&D and trial investments between 2015 and 2020 [PRNW].
  • The total cost of 5G deployment in 28 EU member states will be approximately €56 billion in 2020 [EC]. 5G investment will lead to multiplier effects with a value of €141 billion. These effects are likely to create 2,3 million jobs in the EU member states
  • Parks Associates expects global mobile data revenue to reach $630 billion in 2020, up from $386 billion in 2015 [PA].
  • TBR expects SDN to make up nearly 40% (or $12,7 billion) of global enterprise network infrastructure revenue by 2020 [Telco].
  • TBR predicts that the size of the global telecom infrastructure services market will stay flat at $94,1 billion (compared to $94,1 billion in 2017) [TBR]
  • GE estimates that the Industrial Internet could be a $225 billion market by 2020 [5GA].
  • The M2M market will grow to $346,5 billion by 2020 from $135,7 billion in 2015.
  • Mobile cloud traffic ratio as a percentage of total mobile traffic is expected to increase from 35% in 2013 to 70% in 2020 [5GF]. Thus, most of 5G mobile services in 2020 will be consumed from the cloud.
  • The global market for systems for autonomous cars is expected to reach $189 billion in 2020 [GSMA].
  • Strategy Analytics expects 5G ARPU to be $50 per month [Tele-3]. LTE ARPU will be around $14 per month. 5G ARPU is not expected to ever reach the peak LTE ARPU levels (LTE ARPU peaked at around $67 per month in 2011).
  • South Korea is targeting 5% 5G penetration in 2020 [MWL-3].
  • Cisco predicts that 67% (127 exabytes) of the global Internet traffic will be CDNs by 2020 [QZ]. 

2021

Mobile subscriptions
  • Cisco’s forecast is 6,143 billion LTE connections by 2021 [Cisco].
  • Ericsson expects 4,1 billion LTE subscriptions by 2021 [ER-5].
  • 5G Americas predicts there will be 4,7 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2021 [TL-6].
  • GSA predicts 4,709 billion LTE subscriptions by December 2021 [GSA-7].
  • GSMA forecasts 100 million 5G connections and 17% coverage [GSMA].
  • Cisco expects 25 million 5G connections by 2021. 5G’s share will be 0,2% of all mobile connections and 1.5% of all mobile data traffic [Cisco]. As a comparison, at the end of the second year after the commercial launch of LTE, 0,01% of connections were LTE [LI].
  • Ovum forecasts that there will be 24,5 million 5G subscriptions for mobile and fixed broadband services [LI]. As a comparison, at the end of the second year after the launch of the first 4G network, there were 225.000 4G subscriptions [LI]. Ovum defines 5G subscription as an active connection to a 5G network via a 5G device [UCI]. In February 2017, Ovum revised its estimate to 25 million 5G subscribers worldwide by the end of 2021 [TA-3]. Ovum notes that 5G is at an early stage and thus there is a high degree of uncertainty around 5G deployment and adoption, including significant upside and downside risks [Ovum-3].
  • BMI Research predicts that there will be around 37 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2021 [BMI].
  • Machina Research expects around 3 million 5G connections by 2021 [MR].
  • iGR predicts that there will be 32 million connected 5G devices in 2021 [IGR].
  • Ericsson’s forecast is that 5G will have 150 million subscribers by 2021 [Tele]. However, the vendor defines a 5G subscription as a “device capable of supporting LTE Evolved or NX”, meaning that the estimate seems to include LTE Advanced subscriptions.
  • ABI Research projects that high-speed downlink LTE-Advanced Pro subscribers will reach 641 million in 2021 [ED].
  • In the 27 launching countries, 5G will account for 0.7% of total mobile connections [GSMA].
  • By the end of 2021, 82,6% of mobile connections will be LTE [LI]. However, Cisco has different estimates and expects that 53% of mobile connections will be 4G. 3G’s share will be 28,7%, 2G’s share 9,3% and LPWA’s share 8,9% [Cisco].
  • North America and Asia will each have nearly 10 million 5G subscribers [TW]. Europe and the Middle East and Africa will account for 10% each with close to 2.5 million subscriptions.
  • Ericsson expects 9,1 billion mobile subscriptions globally by the end of 2021 [ER-5].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts there will be 11,3 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2021 [UKS]. Areppim's estimate is 8,4551 billion [AR].
  • According to an extrapolation done by University of Surrey, there could be around 8,7 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2021 [SR]. Around 3,4 billion of them will be LTE subscriptions. 
Mobile infrastructure market
  • 5G Forum predicts that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $8,01 billion in 2021 [5GF].
  • ETRI predicts that the size of the global 5G network equipment market will be $8,09 billion [5GE].
  • IHS Markit expects that early 5G rollouts will not be enough to push the overall mobile infrastructure market back into growth territory by 2021. By 2021, the mobile 5G infrastructure market is projected to be an around $2,5 billion market globally [CS-2].
  • Based on Market Reports Center’s CAGR estimate for 5G network infrastructure, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $3,35 billion in 2021 [PRNW-4].
  • IHS Markit expects the global LTE market to decline to $12 billion from its peak of $25,9 billion in 2015 (a CAGR of -12.4%) [CS-2].
  • Based on SNS Research’s CAGR estimate, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $3,4 billion in 2021 [TL-9].
Commercial LTE and 5G networks
  • GSA predicts that around 690 operators will have introduced LTE networks by 2021 [GSA].
  • GSA predicts that around 480 operators will have introduced LTE-Advanced networks by 2021 [GSA].
  • According to GSA, around 25 operators will have introduced commercial 5G services [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
  • 54 operators in 27 countries and six regions are expected to launch commercial 5G services by the end of 2021 [LI]. For LTE, 13 operators in 9 countries and six regions had launched commercial LTE services at the end of the second year after commercial launch of 4G.
  • Ovum is forecasting that more than 50 operators will be offering 5G services in close to 30 countries by the end of 2021 [TA-3, Ovum].
  • According to Ericsson, 40% of operators plan to launch 5G by 2021 [BI].
  • In a survey done by TIA, 31% of the operators interviewed indicated plans to launch full commercial 5G network at the latest by 2021 [VP]
Mobile data traffic
  • Cisco projects that by 2021, a 5G connection will generate 4,7 times more traffic than the average 4G connection [Cisco].
  • Mobile will represent 20% of total IP traffic by 2021 [Cisco].
  • Between 2016 and 2021, global mobile data traffic will increase sevenfold, growing at a CAGR of 47% and reaching 49 exabytes per month by 2021 [Cisco].
  • The average smartphone will generate 6,8 GB of traffic per month by 2021, which represents a 4-fold increase compared to the 2016 average of 1,6 GB/month [Cisco].
  • Mobile-connected tablets and PCs will generate 8 GB of traffic per month, which is over two times more than in 2016 (3.4 GB/month) [Cisco].
  • By 2021, 78% of the world’s mobile data traffic will be video [Cisco]. This represents a 9-fold increase compared to 2016.
  • By 2021, the average global mobile connection speed will be 20,4 Mbps (from 6,8 Mbps in 2016) [Cisco].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 8.1 GB/month [UKS].
Mobile phones and devices
  • CCS Insight expects that 1,9 billion smartphones and 0,17 billion feature phones will be shipped in 2021 [CCS].
  • CCS Insight predicts that 100 million 5G-capable phones will be shipped in 2021 [CCS]. North America and developed markets in Asia–Pacific such as Japan and South Korea will be leading in the adoption of 5G phone.
  • ABI Research forecasts that cellular M2M module shipments will exceed 400 million in 2021 [MWJ-3]. ABI Research revised its forecast upwards compared to earlier years in part due to operator announcements for accelerated rollouts of NB-IoT networks. ABI Research expects that tracking of all types of products and simple monitoring and control of “things” will be the primary application segments for NB-IoT.
  • Business Insider projects that there will be 22,5 billion IoT devices in 2021, up from 6,6 billion in 2016 [BI-2]
  • Cisco projects that by 2021, there will be 11,6 billion mobile connected devices, including 3,3 billion M2M modules and 8,3 billion handheld or personal mobile-ready devices [Cisco].
  • Ericsson expects 28 billion connected devices globally by 2021 [ER-7]. Close to 16 billion of them will be part of the Internet of Things.
  • ABI Research projects that 18 million new IIoT connections will be added annually by 2021 [5GA]. IIoT connections will total 125 million. Despite of the growth in connections, cellular and satellite connection-related revenues from IIoT will shrink from $138 million in 2017 to $122 million in 2021.
Other
  • According to a 5G Forum report, the market size of global 5G services will be $285 billion [5GF]. In contrast, Juniper Research expects global 5G service revenue to be only $0,7 billion in 2021 [EIT].
  • 90% of 5G connections will be concentrated in North America, Oceania, and Western Europe [LI].
  • The main use case for 5G through 2021 will be eMBB services [TW]. However, fixed broadband services will also be supported especially in the US.
  • 5G will not yet support massive IoT and critical IoT communications in 2021.
  • Eogogics expects manufacturing to be the leading 5G industrial IoT application area by 2021 [Eogo].
  • ABI Research estimates that the total AR market will reach $114 billion and the total VR market $65 billion by 2021 [5CU]. There will be 48 million AR smart glasses in operation by 2021. VR and AR applications could drive 5G adoption in its early stages due to the need for higher frame rates, higher resolutions, and lower latencies.
  • Ericsson expects that microwave will connect 65% of all radio sites by 2021 [FW-3]. In 2021, high-capacity radio sites will typically require backhaul in the 1Gbps range.
  • TBR expects the telecom infrastructure services market to return to growth after five years of continued decline thanks to 5G deployments [TBR]. The size of the market is forecast to be $94,3billion in 2021 (up from $94,1 billion in 2020).
  • Strategy Analytics expects 5G ARPU to drop to around $36 per month in 2021 from $50 per month in 2020 [Tele-3]. LTE ARPU will be around $13 per month.
  • Business insider forecasts that there will be $4,8 trillion in aggregate IoT investment between 2016 and 2021 [BI-2].
  • Based on LTE uptake rates, the South Korean government is expecting that 5G users will account for 30% of total mobile subscribers in South Korea in 2021 [MWL-3].
  • Cisco projects that almost 71% (166,3 exabytes) of the global Internet traffic will be on CDNs by 2021, up from 52% in 2016 [QZ]. In North America, the figure is going to be 91%. CDNs are exerting an increasing impact on the topology of the Internet due to the amount of traffic they handle. In North America, 60% of Internet traffic will be on private CDNs (of companies like Netflix, Google, and Amazon) by 2021.

2022

Mobile subscriptions
  • Ericsson’s forecast is that there will be 4,6 billion LTE subscriptions by the end of 2022 [ER-2].
  • According to ABI Research, there will be more than 4 billion people with LTE subscriptions, up from 2 billion in 2017 [PCW].
  • Strategy Analytics predicts that LTE subscriptions will total 5,6 billion by 2022, representing 62% of all mobile subscriptions (not including M2M) [RCR].
  • GSMA forecasts 300 million 5G connections and 22% coverage by the end of 2022 [GSMA].
  • Markets and Markets is less optimistic and predicts only 89 million 5G subscriptions by 2022 [MAM].
  • Ericsson is more optimistic and forecasts 550 million 5G subscriptions for 2022 [ER]. The population coverage will be 10% and will start in metropolitan and urban areas.
  • Machina Research has the lowest estimate, around 11 million 5G connections by 2022, around 1 million of which will be IoT [MR].
  • Strategy Analytics forecasts 116 million 5G connections in 2022 [PRNW-2]. The figure does not include vertical/industrial applications. Modems and routers will drive early 5G connection volume [Tele-3].
  • BMI Research predicts that there will be around 80 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2022 [BMI].
  • IDATE’s forecast is that there will be 240 million 5G subscribers by the end of 2022 [ID].
  • 25% of all mobile subscriptions could be 5G in North America [GSMA].
  • ABI Research forecasts that worldwide fixed wireless broadband subscribers will grow at a 30% CAGR to reach 151 million in 2022 [FW]. The figure includes all cellular technologies.
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 11,9 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2022 [UKS].
  • According to Ericsson, there will be 8,9 billion worldwide mobile subscriptions by the end of 2022 [ER-2].
  • According to an extrapolation done by University of Surrey, there could be around 8,8 billion mobile subscriptions by the end of 2022 [SR]. Areppim's estimate is 8,5059 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • 5G Forum and ETRI predict that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $16,8 billion in 2022 [5GF, 5GE].
  • Based on SNS Research’s CAGR estimate for 5G network infrastructure, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $5,7 billion in 2022 [PRNW-4, TL-9].
  • ABI Research expects that 50% of the global population will be able to connect to a 4G LTE network by 2022 [ED].
Commercial LTE and 5G networks
  • GSA predicts that around 700 operators will have introduced LTE networks by the end of 2022 [GSA]. Around 520 operators will have introduced LTE-Advanced networks [GSA].
  • Around 60 operators will have introduced commercial 5G services [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
  • In a survey done by TIA, 20% of the interviewed operators indicated that they plan to launch commercial 5G core and radio networks at the latest by 2022 [SC]
Mobile traffic
  • According to Ericsson, data traffic per smartphone will be 11 GB/month globally in 2022 [ER-2]. Monthly mobile data traffic per active smartphone in North America will reach 25 GB [ER-2].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 12,1 GB/month [UKS].
  • ABI Research forecasts that 13% of mobile traffic will be 5G by 2022 [PCW]. LTE’s share will be 82% (up from 67% in 2017).
  • Between 2016 and 2022, mobile data traffic will rise at a CAGR of 45%. During the same period, IoT devices will increase at a CAGR of 21%.
  • LTE’s share of all mobile traffic has grown to 82% from 67% in 2017. 5G’s share will be 13% of all mobile traffic [PCW]
Mobile phones and devices
  • Ericsson expects that globally, about 500 million subscribers will have a 5G-capable smartphone by the end of 2022 [UT].
  • 70% of wide-area IoT devices will use cellular technology [ER-2]. There will be 2,1 billion wide-area IoT and 16 billion short-range IoT devices [ER-2].
  • According to Ericsson, there might be as many as 29 billion connected devices (18 billion of which are related to IoT) by 2022 [ER].
Other
  • A report by 5G Forum predicts that the market size of global 5G services will be $593 billion in 2022 [5GF].
  • Juniper Research expects global 5G service revenue to reach $2,4 billion in 2022 [EIT].
  • Strategy Analytics expects 5G ARPU to drop to around $31 per month in 2022 from $50 per month in 2020 [Tele-3]. LTE ARPU will be around $11 per month.
  • Based on LTE uptake rates, the South Korean government is expecting that 5G users will account for 50% of total mobile subscribers in South Korea in 2022 [MWL-3].
  • A study by Capgemini indicates that by the end of 2022, manufacturers expect that 21% of their plants will be smart factories [EII]. Smart factories use digital technologies such as IoT, big data analytics, AI and advanced robotics to increase productivity, quality and flexibility. Examples include collaborative robots, workers using AR components and machines that send alerts when they need maintenance. The industries that are expected to lead in the adoption of smart factories include aerospace, defense, industrial manufacturing and automotive. By 2022, investments in smart factories could increase manufacturing efficiency by 27%, which would add $500 billion in annual added value to the global economy.

2023

Mobile subscriptions
  • GSMA forecasts 500 million 5G connections and 25% coverage by the end of 2023 [GSMA].
  • Machina Research predicts around 23 million 5G connections, up to 5 million of which are IoT [MR].
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 50 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2024 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions is around 8,9 billion.
  • BMI Research predicts that there will be around 170 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2023 [BMI].
  • IDATE’s forecast is that there will be 456 million 5G subscribers by the end of 2023 [ID]
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 12,5 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2023 [UKS]. Areppim's estimate is 8,5439 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • ETRI predicts that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $29,2 billion in 2023 [5GF, 5GE].
  • Based on SNS Research’s CAGR estimate for 5G network infrastructure, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $9,69 billion in 2023 [PRNW-4, TL-9].
Commercial 5G networks
  • GSA predicts that around 700 operators will have introduced LTE networks by the end of 2023 [GSA]. Around 550 operators will have introduced LTE-Advanced networks.
  • Around 120 operators will have introduced commercial 5G services [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
Mobile traffic
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 18 GB/month [UKS].
Other
  • The market size of global 5G services will be $1.029 billion [5GF].
  • Juniper Research expects global 5G service revenue to reach $7,9 billion by 2023 [EIT].
  • Northstream predicts that mass deployments of 5G will start at the earliest in 2023 [Telco]. Until then, operators will invest heavily in the evolution of LTE rather than going all-in on 5G before it has been fully standardized.

2024

Mobile subscriptions
  • GSMA expects 800 million connections and 29% coverage by the end of 2024 [GSMA].
  • Juniper Research forecasts around 80 million 5G users by the end of 2024 [CBR].
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 100 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2024 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions will be around 8,9 billion.
  • Machina Research estimates that by 2024, there will be around 41 million 5G connections globally, 10 million of which will be IoT connections [MR, TN]. This will amount to 0.5% of all cellular IoT connections (i.e., there will be 200 million cellular IoT connections in total). Approximately 75% of 5G IoT connections will be in the connected car sector [TN]. The majority of these will be embedded vehicle connections. Other top 5G applications include CCTV and digital signage.
  • BMI Research predicts that there will be around 310 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2024 [BMI].
  • IDATE expects 829 million 5G subscribers by 2024 [ID].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 13,2 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2024 [UKS]. Areppim's estimate is 8,5724 billion [AR].
  • According to ABI Research, 50% of all mobile subscriptions will be LTE by 2020, up from 30% in 2017 [ME-3].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • ETRI predicts that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $36,5 billion [5GF, 5GE].
  • Based on SNS Research’s CAGR estimate, the global 5G network infrastructure market could account for $16,5 billion in 2024 [PRNW-4, TL-9].
Commercial 5G networks
  • GSA predicts that around 700 operators will have introduced LTE networks by the end of 2024 [GSA]. Around 570 operators will have introduced LTE-Advanced networks [GSA].
  • GSA also predicts that around 200 operators will have introduced commercial 5G services [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
Mobile traffic
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 26.8 GB/month [UKS].
Mobile phones and devices
  • Strategy Analytics forecasts that 2024 will be the first year when 5G IoT modules will outsell LTE IoT modules [MWJ-2].
  • Mobile Experts expects 500 million 5G devices to be shipped in 2024 [ME].
Other
  • Juniper Research expects global 5G service revenue to reach $23,3 billion in 2024 [EIT].
  • A report by the 5G Forum projects that the market size of global 5G services will be $1.287 billion [5GF].
  • The global cloud robotics market is expected to reach $22 billion by 2024, up from $1,4 billion in 2016 (a CAGR of 32.4%) [Embedded]. The adoption of 5G connectivity in cloud robotics is expected to witness exponential growth between 2016-2024 because of the sub-millisecond latency and higher bandwidth provided by 5G.
  • Accenture estimates that U.S. telecom operators could invest approximately $275 billion between 2017 and 2024 to deploy next-generation wireless technology [ACC]. Of that $275 billion, $93 billion is expected to be spent on construction, with the remainder being allocated for network equipment, engineering, and planning. Moreover, 5G could help create 3 million jobs, and approximately $500 billion in annual GDP in the US.

2025

Mobile subscriptions
  • GSMA predicts 1,1 billion 5G connections and 34% coverage (2.6 billion people) by 2025 [GSMA, GSMA-4].
  • Also Ovum expects 5G to reach its first billion subscriptions by 2025 (in approximately five years) [Ovum].
  • According to Juniper Research, however, there will be only 240 million 5G users by 2025 [CBR]. Juniper expects 5G’s share of global mobile connections to be 3% [CBR].
  • Strategy Analytics expects around 690 million 5G connections by 2025 [TA-2]. 5G will account for 7% of all mobile connections by this time. The figure does not include vertical/industrial applications.
  • ABI Research expects that it will take 5G until 2025 to reach 100 million subscribers [ABI].
  • BMI Research predicts that there will be around 420 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2025 [BMI].
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 200 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2025 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions will be around 8,9 billion.
  • IDATE forecasts 1,651 billion 5G subscribers by 2025 [ID].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 13,8 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2025 [UKS]. Areppim's estimate is 8,5936 billion [AR].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • ETRI predicts that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $45,5 billion in 2025 [5GF, 5GE].
  • SNS Research / Markets and Markets expect that the 5G network infrastructure market will reach $28 billion in annual spending by the end of 2025 [GNW, TL-9]. The CAGR between 2019 and 2025 will be nearly 70%.
Commercial 5G networks
  • GSA predicts that around 710 operators will have introduced LTE networks by the end of 2025 [GSA]. Around 590 operators will have introduced LTE-Advanced networks [GSA].
  • 270 operators will have introduced commercial 5G services [GSA]. The estimate includes all kinds of 5G services, including ones where coverage is limited to dense urban areas.
  • According to GSMA’s CEO 5G survey, 74% of operators studied plan to roll out 5G by 2025 [GSMA-4, TW-2]. A survey by TIA indicates that 75% of the interviewed operators plan to introduce 5G at the latest by 2025 [VP]. According to some estimates, there are around 800 operators in the world [GSMA-7, QU].
Mobile phones and devices
  • Strategy Analytics forecasts that over 190 million 5G IoT modules will be shipped in 2025 [MWJ-2]. The automotive vertical market will be the single largest consumer of IoT cellular modules during the period 2019 – 2025.
  • Strategy Analytics predicts that the sales of 5G-compatible phones will exceed 300 million by 2025 [Fortune].
  • By the end of 2025, there will be annual shipments of up to 520 million 5G-capable devices [GNW].
  • Huawei predicts 100 billion IoT connections by 2025 [TA]. Earlier, Huawei estimated that there will be 100 billion wireless connections (IoT and everything else) globally by 2025 and that 90% of the connections will be IoT [Huawei-2].
Other
  • Juniper Research projects that 5G services revenue will be $65,7 billion, representing 7% of all operator-billed service revenues [Juniper-1, Juniper-2]. 5G revenue is expected to grow at a CAGR of 266% over the period 2020-2025.
  • ABI Research is more optimistic, projecting that mobile broadband operators will see 5G revenues of $247 billion in 2025 [TTV].
  • ReportsnReports projects that 5G networks will generate nearly $250 billion in annual service revenue by 2025 [PRNW]. According to a report by the 5G Forum, the figure will be $1,164 [5GF].
  • Juniper Research predicts that widespread 5G adoption will only occur from 2025, with national spectrum licensing occurring over a period of years similar to LTE [CBR, Juniper-1].
  • According to ABI Research, the global equipment market for in-building wireless systems, including active distributed antenna systems (DAS), passive DAS, and repeaters is expected to grow to $10 billion in 2025 [TA]. Out of this market, 5G in-building wireless equipment will account for only 5% or $509 million since 5G deployments indoors and in venues will start one year later than outdoor 5G deployments. 5G deployments indoors and in venues will be a migration building on the features of LTE-Advanced and LTE-Advanced Pro.
  • According to another estimate, the in-building wireless market will grow to $19 billion by 2025 [TL]. Through 2025, LTE will dominate DAS spending.
  • The global market for ultra-dense small cell services is expected to reach $2,6 billion on annual average in the period 2018-2025 [5GF]. According to TIA’s (Telecommunications Industry Association) 5G operator survey, an intelligent ultra-dense small cell service is ranked as the most important 5G feature [5GF].
  • Global autonomous robot market is expected to be $33,6 billion in 2017 and reach $41,6 billion in 2025 [5GF].
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) market will diversify to personal and public use cases from military use cases. It will reach $5,4 billion in 2025 (up from $4,8 billion in 2018) [5GF].
  • The global market for public safety networks is expected to reach $43,2 billion in 2025 (up from $28,8 billion in 2018; a CAGR of 5,9%) [5GF].
  • More than 7 million truck platooning systems could be shipped by 2025. This provides a large revenue opportunity for communication service providers [Nokia].
  • Eogogics predicts that by 2025, leading 5G apps will include IoT, Haptic Internet, Virtual Reality, and Robotics [Eogo].
  • Strategy Analytics estimates that the number of cellular IoT connections will increase to 2,4 billion in 2025 [Tele-2].
  • ABI Research predicts that by 2025, 67 million automotive 5G vehicle subscriptions will be active [TFM]. Three million of them will be low latency connections mainly deployed in autonomous and driverless cars.
  • By 2025, high-capacity radio sites are expected to typically require backhaul in the 5Gbps range, up from 1 Gbps in 2021 [FW-3].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 39,4 GB/month [UKS].
  • iGR expects that in the US, building and deploying 5G networks will cost $56 billion between 2017 and 2025 [WW]. This will be divided among three main components, including RAN upgrades, cell site densification using small cells, and the creation of data centers, central offices and Mobile Edge Computing (MEC).

2026

Mobile subscriptions
  • Juniper Research believes that 5G adoption rate will accelerate from 2025 onwards [CBR].
  • iGR estimates that 5G connections will grow to 1.3 billion in 2026 [IGR].
  • ABI Research forecasts 500 million 5G cmWave (3-30 GHz) and mmWave (30-100 GHz) subscribers by 2026 [ABI-2].
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 500 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2026 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions will be around 8,9 billion.
  • SNS Research predicts that there could be around <removed> billion 5G subscriptions by 2026 [SNS-3].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 14,4 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2026 [UKS].
  • ABI Research projects that 70% of all LTE Advanced Pro subscriptions will be Gigabit LTE by 2026 [ME-3].
Mobile infrastructure market
  • ETRI predicts that the size of the 5G network equipment market will be $52,6 billion in 2026 [5GF, 5GE].
  • SNS Research forecasts that global 5G infrastructure investments will account for roughly <removed> billion in 2026 [SNS-3].
Mobile traffic
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 57,5 GB/month [UKS].
Other
  • A report by the 5G Forum projects that the market size of global 5G services will be $1.861,5 billion in 2026, up from $36,4 billion in 2020 (a CAGR of 92.7%) [5GF].
  • According to Ericsson, 5G will be worth a total of $1,2 trillion by 2026 [BB].
  • ABI Research forecasts that LTE will deliver nearly $3,5 trillion in service revenues in 2026 [MWJ]. 5G will deliver $200 billion in service revenues. LTE, LTE-Advanced, and LTE-Advanced Pro have exceeded 5 billion subscriptions.
  • ABI Research expects that the 5G subscriber base will grow to account for close to 5% of all mobile subscribers. LTE will represent more than 50% of global mobile subscriptions [MWJ].
  • Eogogics expects that 5G will lead to accelerated Virtual Reality deployment with $72 billion incremental revenue by 2026 [Eogo].
  • Based on LTE uptake rates, the South Korean government is expecting that 5G users will account for 90% of total mobile subscribers in South Korea in 2026 [MWL-3].

2027

Mobile subscriptions
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 800 million 5G subscriptions by the end of 2027 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions will be around 8,9 billion.
  • SNS Research predicts that there could be around <removed> billion 5G subscriptions by 2027 [SNS-3].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 15,1 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2027 [UKS].
Mobile traffic
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 83.5 GB/month [UKS].

2028

Mobile subscriptions
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 1,4 billion 5G subscriptions by the end of 2028 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions is around 9 billion. University of Surrey expects 2028 to be the peak year for LTE subscriptions.
  • SNS Research predicts that there could be around <removed> billion 5G subscriptions by 2028 [SNS-3].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 15,7 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2028 [UKS].
Mobile traffic
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 121,3 GB/month [UKS].

2029

Mobile subscriptions
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 1,8 billion 5G subscriptions by the end of 2029 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions is predicted to be around 9,1 billion.
  • SNS Research predicts that there could be around <removed> billion 5G subscriptions by 2029 [SNS-3].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 16,4 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2029 [UKS].
Mobile traffic
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 177 GB/month [UKS].

2030

Mobile subscriptions
  • According to an extrapolation done by the University of Surrey, there could be around 2,2 billion 5G subscriptions by the end of 2030 [SR]. The total number of mobile subscriptions is predicted to be around 9,2 billion.
  • SNS Research predicts that there could be around <removed> billion 5G subscriptions by 2030 [SNS-3].
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum predicts that there will be 17,1 billion global mobile subscriptions by 2030 [UKS].
Mobile infrastructure
  • SNS Research expects the global wireless infrastructure market will grow at a CAGR of 50% by 2030 from $61 billion in 2020 [FOX].
Mobile traffic
  • UK Spectrum Policy Forum estimates that global mobile traffic consumed per mobile subscription will be 257,1 GB/month [UKS]. This is roughly equivalent to 57 hours of HDTV content at 10 Mbit/s.
Other
  • Eogogics expects that 5G-enabled autonomous robots market will reach $14,6 billion by 2030 [Eogo].
  • The cost of electric parts and software will reach 50% of the total cost of self-driving cars in 2030 [5GF].
  • In China, 5G is expected to drive $930 billion of economic output by 2030 [BS].

2035

Other
  • 5G’s full economic benefit should be realized across the world by 2035 and could produce up to $12,3 trillion worth of global economic output, including goods and services enabled by 5G in a broad range of industries from retail to education, transportation to entertainment and everything in between [QC]. $12,3 trillion is nearly equivalent to all US consumer spending in 2016 [IHS].
  • IHS Markit expects that 5G value chain will be generating $3,5 trillion in output, supporting as many as 22 million jobs [QC]. This value is larger than the value of today’s entire mobile value chain and corresponds roughly to the combined revenue of the top 13 companies on the 2016 Fortune Global 100 list [IHS].
  • The 5G value chain will be investing an average of $200 billion annually to the 5G technology base within network and business application infrastructure. This figure is almost half of total US federal, state, and local government spending on transportation infrastructure in 2014 [IHS].
  • 5G will boost real global GDP growth by $3 trillion dollars cumulatively from 2020 to 2035, which corresponds roughly to adding an economy the size of India to the world in today’s dollars [QC].
  • The global market for systems for autonomous cars is expected to grow up to $1,152 billion in 2035 (from $189 billion in 2020).

2039

Mobile subscriptions
  • University of Surrey predicts that 2039 will be the peak year for 5G subscriptions [SR].

References


[5CU] How will 5G boost VR and AR? https://5g.co.uk/guides/5g-virtual-reality-and-augmented-reality/

[5GA] Industrial IoT to exceed 53M connections worldwide in 2017: ABI, http://www.5gamericas.org/en/newsroom/industry-news/industrial-iot-exceed-53m-connections-worldwide-2017-abi/

[5GA-2] 4G Americas Provides Global Deployment List of 200 Commercial LTE Networks, http://www.5gamericas.org/en/newsroom/press-releases/4g-americas-provides-global-deployment-list-200-commercial-lte-networks/

[5GA-3] Mobile Technology Statistics – Global, http://www.5gamericas.org/en/resources/statistics/statistics-global/

[5GE] 5G Ensure Deliverable D5.4 First Market Analysis & Exploitation Report, http://www.5gensure.eu/sites/default/files/5G-ENSURE_D5.4%20First%20Market%20Analysis%20and%20Exploitation%20Report%20v1.0%20PUBLIC.pdf

[5GF] 5G Service Roadmap 2022, http://kani.or.kr/5g/whitepaper/5G%20Service%20Roadmap%202022.pdf

[ABI] 5G in 2020 Will Be Rare; Over 100 Million Subscribers by 2025, https://www.abiresearch.com/press/5g-in-2020-will-be-rare-over-100-million-subscribe/

[ABI-2] ABI Research Forecasts 500 Million 5G cmWave and mmWave Subscribers Will Bring $200 Billion in Service Revenue through 2026, https://www.abiresearch.com/press/abi-research-forecasts-500-million-5g-cmwave-and-m/

[ACC] Smart Cities – How 5G Can Help Municipalities Become Vibrant Smart Cities, https://newsroom.accenture.com/content/1101/files/Accenture_5G-Municipalities-Become-Smart-Cities.pdf

[AF] World LTE Market : 830 million LTE subscribers worldwide by the end of 2016, http://www.afjv.com/news/1069_lte-market.htm

[ALT] 5G as the enabler of cross-industry convergence, https://www.altran.com/fileadmin/medias/1.altran.com/files/PDF/Mobile_World_Congress_2017/Position_Papers/5G_as_the_enabler_of_cross-industry_convergence_White_paper.pdf

[AM] The investment case for 5G mobile is more distant without fixed wireless, http://www.analysysmason.com/Research/Content/Comments/5G-fixed-case-Aug2016-RDTW0-RDCS0/

[AM-2] Regulatory options to promote investment in 5G and IoT – a study for Qualcomm, https://www.techuk.org/component/techuksecurity/security/download/10241?file=Janette_Stewart_Analysys_Mason_-_Presentation_from_Analysys_Mason_Qualcomm_study_for_SPF_140217.pdf&Itemid=182

[AMG] Rapid Growth Seen for 5G Equipment Sales, http://www.aglmediagroup.com/rapid-growth-seen-for-5g-equipment-sales/

[AR] Million mobile-cellular subscriptions, http://stats.areppim.com/stats/stats_mobilex2013.htm

[ARC] 5G: Issues & Challenges, March 2017, http://www.arcep.fr/uploads/tx_gspublication/Report-5G-issues-challenges-march2017.pdf

[BB] Ericsson CEO Says Cloud Capability Key to Capturing 5G Market, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-02-27/ericsson-ceo-says-cloud-capability-key-to-capturing-5g-market

[BI] AT&T brings 5G to Austin and Indianapolis, http://www.businessinsider.com/att-brings-5g-to-austin-and-indianapolis-2017-2?r=US&IR=T&IR=T

[BI-2] Verizon trials 5G in 11 US cities, http://www.businessinsider.com/verizon-trials-5g-in-11-us-cities-2017-2?r=US&IR=T&IR=T

[BMI] Early 5G Still Needs A Business Case, http://www.bmiresearch.com/articles/early-5g-still-needs-a-business-case

[BR] Magic Quadrant for LTE Network Infrastructure, http://branden.biz/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Magic-Quadrant-for-LTE-Network-Infrastructure.pdf

[BS] 5G to drive $930bn economic output in China by 2030, http://www.business-standard.com/article/international/5g-to-drive-930bn-economic-output-in-china-by-2030-117061301079_1.html

[BTR] Infonetics: LTE Increased Mobile Infrastructure Revenue in 2014 by Ten Percent Over 2013 Revenue, http://biztechreports.com/blog/2015/03/17/infonetics-lte-increased-mobile-infrastructure-revenue-in-2014-by-ten-percent-over-2013-revenue/

[BW] Global 5G Equipment Market to Grow at an Impressive CAGR of Over 32% Through 2020, Says Technavio, http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20161024006268/en/Global-5G-Equipment-Market-Grow-Impressive-CAGR

[BW-2] Infonetics: LTE Market Nearly Doubling in 2013, http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20130313006299/en/Infonetics-LTE-Market-Doubling-2013

[CBR] IoE to push 5G adoption to 240m users by 2025, http://www.cbronline.com/news/internet-of-things/ioe-to-push-5g-adoption-to-240m-users-by-2025-4666530/

[CCS] Sales of 5G Smartphones to Hit 100 Million in 2021, http://www.ccsinsight.com/press/company-news/3002-sales-of-5g-smartphones-to-hit-100-million-in-2021

[CD] Telcos seek 5G cutting edge growth, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/tech/2017-06/07/content_29646671.htm

[CIAJ] CIAJ Releases “FY2015 – FY2020 Mid-Term Demand Forecast for Telecommunication Equipment” Declining demand through FY2017, followed by gradual recovery, http://www.ciaj.or.jp/en/news/news2015/96.html

[Cisco] Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2016–2021 White Paper, http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/mobile-white-paper-c11-520862.html

[CN] LTE Infrastructure Spending to Soar in Next Four Years, http://www.cellular-news.com/story/48664.php

[CN-2] HSPA Drives Mobile Infrastructure Market Growth in 2008, http://www.cellular-news.com/story/36429.php

[CRT] Global LTE Wireless Infrastructure Market 2019 : Market Size, Growth, Trends, Industry Analysis and Forecast Acute Market Reports, http://www.crossroadstoday.com/story/34850980/global-lte-wireless-infrastructure-market-2019-market-size-growth-trends-industry-analysis-and-forecast-acute-market-reports

[CS] Cutting through the Hype: Will the real 4G (LTE-A) please stand up and tell us what 5G is? http://techblog.comsoc.org/2015/03/19/cutting-through-the-hype-will-the-real-4g-lte-a-please-stand-up-and-tell-us-what-5g-is/

[CS-2] IHS on Mobile Infrastructure Market: 2016 revenue -10% despite strong Q4, http://techblog.comsoc.org/2017/03/09/ihs-on-mobile-infrastructure-market-2016-revenue-10-despite-strong-q4/

[CS-3] Market Research Reports Assess the LTE & VoLTE Markets with Different Forecasts for 2015 and Beyond, http://techblog.comsoc.org/2014/12/04/market-research-reports-assess-the-lte-volte-markets-with-different-forecasts-for-2015-and-beyond/

[Deloitte] 2017 Technology, Media and Telecommunications Predictions Middle East edition, https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/xe/Documents/technology-media-telecommunications/predicitons2017/ME-Predictions-2017-5G.pdf

[DO] Strong adoption of 5G expected to return RAN market to growth, according to Dell’Oro Group, https://www.delloro.com/news/strong-adoption-5g-expected-return-ran-market-growth-according-delloro-group

[DW] Global LTE Forecasts, http://www.dailywireless.org/2014/02/27/global-lte-forecasts/

[EC] Identification and quantification of key socio-economic data to support strategic planning for the introduction of 5G in Europe, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/5g-deployment-could-bring-millions-jobs-and-billions-euros-benefits-study-finds

[ED] 5G Exposed! http://www.electronicdesign.com/communications/5g-exposed

[EE] LTE spending projected to boom in 2013, http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1261094

[EII] Manufacturers expect 21% of their plants will be smart factories by the end of 2022, http://enterpriseiotinsights.com/20170601/smart-factory/20170601smart-factorysmart-factories-economic-value-tag23

[EII-2] Vodafone activates NB-IoT network in the Netherlands, http://enterpriseiotinsights.com/20170605/nb-iot/20170605nb-iotvodafone-activates-nb-iot-network-netherlands-tag23

[EIII-3] MulteFire vs. LAA, http://enterpriseiotinsights.com/20170609/channels/fundamentals/multefire-laa-tag23-tag99

[EIT] EIT Digital, Innovation Radar, 2015 Annual Trend Report, https://www.eitdigital.eu/fileadmin/files/2016/publications/A4_EIT-Digital_Innovation-Radar-Report_2015_151218_AS_x.pdf

[EL] LTE Mobile Infrastructure Revenue to Peak in 2015, http://electronics360.globalspec.com/article/5386/lte-mobile-infrastructure-revenue-to-peak-in-2015

[EM] Global Mobile Landscape 2016: A Country-by-Country Look at Mobile Phone and Smartphone Usage, https://www.emarketer.com/Report/Global-Mobile-Landscape-2016-Country-by-Country-Look-Mobile-Phone-Smartphone-Usage/2001859

[Embedded] Cloud robotics market expected to reach $21,949.6 million globally by 2024, http://embedded-computing.com/guest-blogs/cloud-robotics-market-expected-to-reach-21949-6-million-globally-by-2024/

[EOC] What is 5G NR (5G New Radio)?, http://edge-of-cloud.blogspot.fi/2017/03/what-is-5g-nr-5g-new-radio.html

[Eogo] 5G Market Assessment: Vendor Strategies, Technology and Infrastructure Outlook and Application Forecasts 2016 – 2025, https://eogogics.com/product/5g-market-assessment-vendor-strategies-technology-infrastructure-outlook-application-forecasts-2016-2025/

[ER] 5G subscriptions to reach half a billion in 2022: Ericsson Mobility Report, https://www.ericsson.com/news/2056743

[ER-2] Ericsson Mobility Report November 2016, https://www.ericsson.com/assets/local/mobility-report/documents/2016/ericsson-mobility-report-november-2016.pdf

[ER-3] Ericsson Mobility Report June 2016, https://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2016/ericsson-mobility-report-2016.pdf

[ER-4] Ericsson Mobility Report June 2015, https://www.slideshare.net/Ericsson/ericsson-mobilityreportjune2015

[ER-5] Ericsson Mobility Report November 2015, https://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2015/mobility-report/ericsson-mobility-report-nov-2015.pdf

[ER-6] Ericsson Mobility Report November 2013, https://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2013/ericsson-mobility-report-november-2013.pdf

[ER-6] Ericsson Mobility Report November 2012, https://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2012/ericsson-mobility-report-november-2012.pdf

[ER-7] Number theories: what 100 operators really think about 5G, https://www.ericsson.com/assets/local/publications/ericsson-business-review/issue-1--2016/ebr-issue1-2016-5g-survey-100-operators.pdf

[Fortune] New 5G Technology Will Speed Up Mobile Phones, Eventually, http://fortune.com/2016/08/26/speed-mobile-phones-300-million-5g/

[FOX] Wireless Network Infrastructure Global Market to Reach $61 Billion and Growing at a CAGR of 50% by 2030, http://www.fox34.com/story/35390929/wireless-network-infrastructure-global-market-to-reach-61-billion-and-growing-at-a-cagr-of-50-by-2030

[FW] 5G to help drive fixed wireless to top 151M in 2022: ABI, http://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/5g-to-help-drive-fixed-wireless-to-top-151m-2022-abi

[FW-2] TeliaSonera launches first commercial LTE network, http://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/teliasonera-launches-first-commercial-lte-network

[FW-3] 5G, LTE-A to drive long-term growth in backhaul market: IHS, http://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/5g-lte-a-to-drive-long-term-growth-backhaul-market-ihs

[FW-4] Report: LTE subscribers to hit 198M in 2013, then skyrocket to 1B in 2016, http://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/report-lte-subscribers-to-hit-198m-2013-then-skyrocket-to-1b-2016

[FW-5] IHS: Ericsson leads $13B LTE infrastructure market, but the growth is over, http://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/ihs-ericsson-leads-13b-lte-infrastructure-market-but-growth-over

[Gartner] 5G — Who’s in the Driver’s Seat? http://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/5g-whos-in-the-drivers-seat/

[Gartner-2] Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales Grew 6 Per Cent in 2008, But Sales Declined 5 Per Cent in the Fourth Quarter, http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/904729

[Gartner-3] Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales to End Users Grew 8 Per Cent in Fourth Quarter 2009; Market Remained Flat in 2009, http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/1306513

[GNW] $28 Billion 5G Wireless Ecosystem Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts 2017-2030, https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/03/27/945323/0/en/28-Billion-5G-Wireless-Ecosystem-Technologies-Applications-Verticals-Strategies-Forecasts-2017-2030.html

[GNW-2] Global LTE, LTE-Advanced & 5G Ecosystem Infrastructure, Devices, Operator Services, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts Report 2016-2030, https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2016/10/20/881264/0/en/Global-LTE-LTE-Advanced-5G-Ecosystem-Infrastructure-Devices-Operator-Services-Verticals-Strategies-Forecasts-Report-2016-2030.html

[GNW-3] TIA Survey Reveals Deployment Hurdles for Operators Before Commercial 5G in 2020, https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/03/16/939987/0/en/TIA-Survey-Reveals-Deployment-Hurdles-for-Operators-Before-Commercial-5G-in-2020.html

[GSA] The Road to 5G: Drivers, Applications, Requirements and Technical Development, http://www.huawei.com/minisite/5g/img/GSA_the_Road_to_5G.pdf

[GSA-2] Global LTE Subscriptions Forecast to 2020, https://gsacom.com/paper/global-lte-subscriptions-forecast-to-2020/

[GSA-3] GSA Confirms LTE Subscriptions are now more than 25% of all Global mobile Subscriptions, https://gsacom.com/press-release/gsa-confirms-lte-subscriptions-now-25-global-mobile-subscriptions/

[GSA-4] Evolution from LTE to 5G,  https://gsacom.com/

[GSA-5] Snapshot: LTE Global Network Status May 2017, https://gsacom.com/

[GSA-6] GSA LTE Fast Facts April 2017, https://gsacom.com/

[GSA-7] LTE Subscriptions to 4G 2016, https://gsacom.com/

[GSMA] GSMA - The Mobile Economy 2017, https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/?file=9e927fd6896724e7b26f33f61db5b9d5&download

[GSMA-2] Uneven 4G adoption has implications for 5G outlook, https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/2017/04/uneven-4g-adoption-has-implications-for-5g-outlook/618/

[GSMA-3] Infographic: Global 4G-LTE forecasts: 2012–2020, https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/2017/02/infographic-global-4g-lte-forecasts-2012%E2%80%932020/605/

[GSMA-4] The 5G era: Age of boundless connectivity and intelligent automation, https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/2017/02/the-5g-era-age-of-boundless-connectivity-and-intelligent-automation/614/

[GSMA-5] The Mobile Economy 2017, http://www.gsma.com/mobileeconomy/

[GSMA-6] GSMA Full Members, http://www.gsma.com/membership/who-are-our-gsma-members/full-membership/

[Huawei] On the path to 5G with 4.5G, http://www.huawei.com/en/publications/communicate/80/reaching-5g-with-45g

[Huawei-2] What Should We Do Before 5G, http://www.huawei.com/en/events/mwc/2016/highlights/keynote-by-guoping-on-mwc2016

[IA] 5G technology market set to grow from 2016 to 2023 - report finds, http://www.information-age.com/5g-market-expected-grow-123462993/

[IBN] MWC 2017: IoT has no compelling need for 5G – focus was on LTE variants for IoT, https://iotbusinessnews.com/2017/03/15/80790-mwc-2017-iot-no-compelling-need-5g-focus-lte-variants-iot/

[ID] World LTE markets – 5G initiatives & MBB spectrum In 2020: 4.7 billion LTE subscribers forecasted when 5G is launched, https://en.idate.org/world-lte-markets-5g-2020/

[ID-2] World LTE markets – 5G initiatives & MBB spectrum In 2020: 4.7 billion LTE subscribers forecasted when 5G is launched, https://en.idate.org/world-lte-markets-5g-2020/

[IEEE] Outdoor-to-indoor coverage in high frequency bands, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7063463/?arnumber=7063463

[IGR] New iGR Study Presents a Model for Global 5G Connections and Bandwidth, Which Estimates 1.3 Billion 5G Mobile Connections by 2026, http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/new-igr-study-presents-model-global-5g-connections-bandwidth-which-estimates-13-billion-2138860.htm

[IHS] The 5G economy: How 5G technology will contribute to the global economy, https://www.qualcomm.com/documents/ihs-5g-economic-impact-study

[IHS-2] IHS Technology 5G Strategies, Global Service Provider Survey, https://tools.ext.nokia.com/asset/200835

[IHS-3] Report highlights – LTE infrastructure market up 9 percent from a year ago, https://technology.ihs.com/573504/report-highlights-lte-infrastructure-market-up-9-percent-from-a-year-ago

[IHS-4] Wireless Infrastructure Market Rebounds in 2011 as Carriers Upgrade Networks for Data Services, https://technology.ihs.com/389451/wireless-infrastructure-market-rebounds-in-2011-as-carriers-upgrade-networks-for-data-services

[IHS-5] Wireless Spending on Infrastructure to Grow 7.7 Percent in 2011, https://technology.ihs.com/394523/wireless-spending-on-infrastructure-to-grow-77-percent-in-2011

[IMH] Global LTE Wireless Infrastructure Market 2015, http://iconmediaholdings.com/global-lte-wireless-infrastructure-market-2015-patriarc/

[IPC] 5G Will Cost More than 4G, But How Much More?, https://ipcarrier.blogspot.fi/2017/05/5g-will-cost-more-than-4g-but-how-much.html

[Juniper-1] 5G Service Revenues Forecast to Exceed $65bn Globally by 2025, Contributing 7% of Operator Revenues, https://www.juniperresearch.com/press/press-releases/5g-revenues-forecast-to-exceed-65bn-usd-by-2025

[Juniper-2] Need for 5G: Hot Pursuit, https://www.juniperresearch.com/document-library/white-papers/need-for-5g-hot-pursuit

[JS] Wireless communication infrastructure (WCI). Market tendencies and perspectives (2G, 3G, LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi), 2012 – 2017, http://www.json.ru/en/poleznye_materialy/free_market_watches/analytics/tendencii_i_perspektivy_razvitiya_mirovogo_rynka_infrastruktury_besprovodnoj_svyazi_2g_3g_lte_wimax_wi-fi_2012-2017_gg/

[LI] Ovum forecasts that there will be 24.5 million 5G subscriptions worldwide at the end of 2021 for mobile and fixed broadband services. This compares to 225,000 4G subscriptions at the end of 2010, the second year after the launch of the first 4G network, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/5g-adoption-faster-than-any-previous-technology-dimitrios-xydias

[LR] SK Telecom Targets Pre-Commercial 5G Deployment In 2017, http://www.lightreading.com/mobile/5g/sk-telecom-targets-pre-commercial-5g-deployment-in-2017/d/d-id/724842

[LR-2] DT CTO: Costs Must Fall or 5G 'Won't Work', http://www.lightreading.com/mobile/5g/dt-cto-costs-must-fall-or-5g-wont-work/d/d-id/730664

[LR-3] Vodafone CTO 'Worried' About 5G mmWave Hype, http://www.lightreading.com/mobile/spectrum/vodafone-cto-worried-about-5g-mmwave-hype/d/d-id/730679

[LR-4] NB-IoT? Not at Those Prices, Say DT Customers, http://www.lightreading.com/iot/nb-iot/nb-iot-not-at-those-prices-say-dt-customers/d/d-id/733220

[MAM] 5G Technology Market worth 89.0 Million Subscriptions by 2022, http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/5g-technology.asp

[MC] LTE Marketplace, https://blog.mindcommerce.com/2012/05/01/lte-marketplace/

[MC-2] LTE Infrastructure Market, https://blog.mindcommerce.com/2012/03/05/lte-infrastructure-market/

[MC-3] Global LTE Infrastructure Revenue, https://blog.mindcommerce.com/2012/02/23/global-lte-infrastructure-revenue/

[ME] Industry's Leading Skeptic Publishes Sunny 5G Market Forecast, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/industrys-leading-skeptic-publishes-sunny-5g-market-forecast-300420227.html

[ME-2] 5G handsets to hit 100m shipments by 2021, analysts predict, http://www.mobileeurope.co.uk/press-wire/5g-handsets-to-hit-100m-shipments-by-2021-analysts-predict

[ME-3] LTE to hit 50% of mobile subscriptions by 2024 as networks go Gigabit, http://www.mobileeurope.co.uk/press-wire/lte-to-hit-50-of-mobile-subscriptions-by-2024-as-networks-go-gigabit

[MM] 5G Equipment Market to Grow at 32.06% CAGR to 2020, http://marketersmedia.com/5g-equipment-market-to-grow-at-32-06-cagr-to-2020/145138

[MR] Machina Research Predicts 10 Million Internet of Things Connections in 2024, https://machinaresearch.com/news/machina-research-predicts-10-million-5g-internet-of-things-connections-in-2024/

[MW] 5G Equipment Market: Global Market Size, Shares, Technological Advancements, Growth and Forecast 2016-2020, http://www.marketwatch.com/story/5g-equipment-market-global-market-size-shares-technological-advancements-growth-and-forecast-2016-2020-2016-10-28-82031155

[MWJ] ABI Research Forecasts 500 Million 5G Subscribers Will Bring $200B in Revenue Through 2026, http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/27552-abi-research-forecasts-500-million-5g-subscribers-will-bring-200b-in-revenue-through-2026

[MWJ-2] IoT Cellular Module Shipments to Exceed 190M in 2025, http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/27893-iot-cellular-module-shipments-to-exceed-190m-in-2025

[MWJ-3] Operator Commitments to NB-IoT Will Push Cellular M2M Module Shipments Past 400 Million in 2021, http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/27601-operator-commitments-to-nb-iot-will-push-cellular-m2m-module-shipments-past-400-million-in-2021

[MWL] Mobile phone market peaks at 2B units a year – study, https://www.mobileworldlive.com/featured-content/home-banner/pressure-on-small-manufacturers-as-mobile-phone-market-peaks-study/

[MWL-2] Mobile World Live, Annual Industry Suvey 2017, https://www.mobileworldlive.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/19308%20MWL%20Annual%20Survey.pdf

[MWL-3] South Korea targets 30% 5G penetration in 2021, https://www.mobileworldlive.com/featured-content/top-three/koreas-targets-30-5g-pentration-in-2021/?utm_campaign=MWL_20170525&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

[NGC] Dell'Oro Group Reveals 2016 Mobile Infrastructure Market Began in a Slump, http://next-generation-communications.tmcnet.com/topics/nextgen-voice/articles/424091-delloro-group-reveals-2016-mobile-infrastructure-market-began.htm

[Nokia] Translating 5G use cases into viable business cases, https://tools.ext.nokia.com/asset/201152

[Ovum] 5G adoption will be faster than any previous technology, https://ovum.informa.com/resources/product-content/te0009-001600

[Ovum-2] 5G will hit 25 million subscriptions worldwide in 2021, https://ovum.informa.com/resources/product-content/5g-will-hit-25-million-subscriptions-worldwide-in-2021

[Ovum-3] 5G will hit 24 million subscriptions worldwide in 2021, https://www.ovum.com/press_releases/5g-will-hit-24-million-subscriptions-worldwide-2021/

[PA] 5G Consumer Market Subscriptions To Hit 17.5 mln In 2020, https://www.parksassociates.com/blog/article/5g-consumer-market-subscriptions-to-hit-17-5-mln-in-2020

[PA-2] Global mobile data revenues to reach $630 billion by 2020, https://www.parksassociates.com/blog/article/pr-07112016

[PCW] Despite 5G, LTE will be even bigger five years from now, http://www.pcworld.com/article/3180450/mobile/despite-5g-lte-will-be-even-bigger-five-years-from-now.html

[PRNW] 5G Wireless Market Worth $250 Billion by 2025: $6 Billion Spend Forecast on R&D for 2015-2020, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/5g-wireless-market-worth-250-billion-by-2025-6-billion-spend-forecast-on-rd-for-2015-2020-570611171.html

[PRNW-2] Strategy Analytics: Global 4G Service Revenue to Exceed 3G in 2016, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/strategy-analytics-global-4g-service-revenue-to-exceed-3g-in-2016-300278728.html

[PRNW-3] LTE-Advanced and 5G Market Analysis Says $32 Billion Opportunity in LTE and 5G Infrastructure Expected by 2020, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/lte-advanced-and-5g-market-analysis-says-32-billion-opportunity-in-lte-and-5g-infrastructure-expected-by-2020-593709991.html

[PRNW-4] 5G Network Infrastructure Market to Grow at a CAGR of 70%, Accounting for $28 Billion in Annual Spending by 2025, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/5g-network-infrastructure-market-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-70-accounting-for-28-billion-in-annual-spending-by-2025-616608764.html

[QC] Landmark Study on Impact of 5G Mobile Technology Released, https://www.qualcomm.com/news/releases/2017/01/17/landmark-study-impact-5g-mobile-technology-released

[QU] How many mobile operators are there worldwide?, https://www.quora.com/How-many-mobile-operators-are-there-worldwide

[QZ] The internet in rich countries will be unrecognizable from the rest of the world’s in five years, https://qz.com/1001569/the-cdn-heavy-internet-in-rich-countries-will-be-unrecognizable-from-the-rest-of-the-worlds-in-five-years/

[RCR] Global LTE subs to reach 1.9B by end of 2016, http://www.rcrwireless.com/20160606/network-infrastructure/lte/global-lte-subs-reach-1-9-billion-end-2016-tag23

[RCR-2] ZTE projects 5G revenues will start in 2019, http://www.rcrwireless.com/20170530/5g/zte-5g-revenues-2019-tag23

[RCR-3] Japan launches 5G trial system in Tokyo and rural areas, http://www.rcrwireless.com/20170530/carriers/japan-5g-trial-system-tokyo-tag23

[Reuters] T-Mobile to begin rolling out 5G in U.S. in 2019, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-t-mobile-us-5g-idUSKBN17Y1JI

[RW] The reasons why 5G can never happen, http://rethink-wireless.com/2016/07/19/the-reasons-why-5g-can-never-happen/

[SA] First 5G Smartphones to Arrive 2019 Says Qualcomm, https://www.strategyanalytics.com/strategy-analytics/blogs/devices/emerging-devices/emerging-devices/2017/04/07/first-5g-smartphones-to-arrive-2019-says-qualcomm#.WQWfHImGPow

[SC] TIA surveys operators on 5G, http://stevencrowley.com/2017/02/22/tia-surveys-operators-on-5g/

[SNS] Pre-standards 5G network investments to account for $250 Million, says SNS Research report, http://www.snstelecom.com/pre-standards-5g-network-investments-to-account-for-250-million-says-sns-research-report

[SNS-2] LTE and 5G infrastructure a $32 Billion opportunity, says SNS Research report, http://www.snstelecom.com/lte-and-5g-infrastructure-a-32-billion-opportunity-says-sns-research-report

[SNS-3] SNS Research, The 5G Wireless Ecosystem: 2017 - 2030 – Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts

[SNS-4] C-RAN infrastructure investments to surpass $7 Billion by 2016, says SNS Research report, http://www.snstelecom.com/c-ran-infrastructure-investments-to-surpass-7-billion-by-20-says-sns-research-report

[SP] The 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G Wireless Network Infrastructure Market: 2016 – 2030 – with an Evaluation of Wi-Fi and WiMAX, http://slideplayer.com/slide/10152510/

[SR] Plotting the path to 2020 and beyond, Stuart Revell, University of Surrey, 5G Innovation Centre, https://eu-ems.com/event_images/presentations/Stuart%20Revell%20presentation.pdf

[SS] Cowen and Company 42nd Annual Technology, Media, & Telecom Conference, https://www.slideshare.net/investormavenirsystems/cowen-conference-mavenirinvestorpres052714v001l4pq48

[ST] Wireless Network Infrastructure Market Analysis 2014 – 2020, http://sourcetech411.com/2015/05/wireless-network-infrastructure-market-analysis-2014-2020/

[Stat] Number of LTE connections worldwide from 2010 to 2017* (in millions), https://www.statista.com/statistics/371862/lte-connections-worldwide/

[Strand] 2017 Predictions and review of 2016, http://www.strandconsult.dk/sw7283.asp

[TA] 5G indoor wireless market to be worth $509m by 2025, http://www.telecomasia.net/content/5g-indoor-wireless-market-be-worth-509m-2025

[TA-2] 5G connections tipped to reach 690m by 2025, https://www.telecomasia.net/content/5g-connections-tipped-reach-690m-2025

[TA-3] Ovum: 5G will be available in nearly 30 countries by 2021, https://www.telecomasia.net/content/ovum-5g-will-be-available-nearly-30-countries-2021

[TA-4] 100b IoT connections by 2025: Huawei, https://www.telecomasia.net/content/100b-iot-connections-2025-huawei

[TBR] The TIS market will decline until 5G arrives in 2020, as operators realize cost savings from
legacy decommissioning, NFV, SDN and cloud, http://tbri.com/MyTBR/documents/2Q17/PR/0428/tbr_pr_tis_global_mf_2016_2021_nbq.pdf?CFID=6049818&CFTOKEN=66760932

[TC] 5G Revenue Forecast to Surpass $65 Billion by 2025, http://www.telecompetitor.com/5g-revenue-forecast-to-surpass-65-billion-by-2025/

[Telco] Where will the telecom industry go in 2017? http://www.telco.com/blog/where-will-the-telecom-industry-go-in-2017/

[Tele] Ericsson forecasts 150 million 5G subscriptions by 2021, http://telecoms.com/454302/ericsson-forecasts-150-million-5g-subscriptions-by-2021/

[Tele-2] Cellular IoT connections to hit 2.4bn by 2025 – Strategy Analytics, http://telecoms.com/480878/cellular-iot-connections-to-hit-2-4bn-by-2025-strategy-analytics/

[Tele-3] 4G service revenue to overtake 3G in 2016, http://telecoms.com/472922/4g-service-revenue-to-overtake-3g-in-2016/

[TFM] 67 million Active Automotive 5G Vehicle Subscriptions By 2025, says ABI Research, https://www.thefastmode.com/technology-and-solution-trends/8250-67-million-active-automotive-5g-vehicle-subscriptions-by-2025-says-abi-research

[TG] AT&T: mobile 5G coming in late-2018, https://www.telegeography.com/products/commsupdate/articles/2017/03/15/att-mobile-5g-coming-in-late-2018/

[TG-2] The U.S. leads the way in LTE, https://www.telegeography.com/products/commsupdate/articles/2011/11/28/the-u-s-leads-the-way-in-lte/

[TL] In-building wireless investments and challenges, http://www.telecomlead.com/telecom-equipment/building-wireless-investments-challenges-71525

[TL-2] Telecom operators strategies for IoT revealed by Analysys Mason, http://www.telecomlead.com/5g/telecoms-operators-strategies-for-iot-revealed-by-analysys-mason-73315

[TL-3] LTE infrastructure revenues to reach $20 bn in 2015: Infonetics, http://www.telecomlead.com/news/lte-infrastructure-revenue-reach-20-bn-2015-infonetics-52684

[TL-4] Mobile infrastructure spending drops 10% in 2016, Ericsson leads, http://www.telecomlead.com/telecom-equipment/mobile-infrastructure-spending-drops-10-2016-ericsson-leads-75236

[TL-5] 4G LTE connections to overtake 3G by 2020: 4G Americas, http://www.telecomlead.com/telecom-statistics/4g-lte-connections-to-overtake-3g-by-2020-4g-americas-63846

[TL-6] 5G India 2017 Speaker List Revealed, http://www.telecomlead.com/5g/5g-india-2017-speaker-list-revealed-76567

[TL-7] Wireless Capex to touch $210 bn: Where telecoms are investing? http://www.telecomlead.com/telecom-services/wireless-capex-touch-210-bn-telecoms-investing-69011

[TL-8] Huawei overtakes Ericsson in 2G / 3G / LTE radio network market, http://www.telecomlead.com/telecom-equipment/huawei-overtakes-ericsson-2g-3g-lte-radio-market-73164

[TL-9] Telecoms to spend $21 bn on 5G new radio infrastructure, http://www.telecomlead.com/5g/telecoms-spend-21-bn-5g-new-radio-infrastructure-76618

[TN] 5G is forecast to account for 10 million IoT devices by 2024, https://www.technative.io/5g-is-forecast-to-account-for-10-million-iot-devices-by-2024/

[TN-2] Rising Mobile Network Demand to Drive Mobile Communication Industry to 5G in 2016, According to TrendForce, http://technews.co/2015/11/18/rising-mobile-network-demand-to-drive-mobile-communication-industry-to-5g-in-2016-according-to-trendforce/

[TM] T-Mobile Announces Plans for Real Nationwide Mobile 5G, https://newsroom.t-mobile.com/news-and-blogs/nationwide-5g.htm

[TM-2] Setting the 5G Record Straight: Announcing Plans for Nationwide 5G from T-Mobile, https://newsroom.t-mobile.com/news-and-blogs/nationwide-5g-blog.htm

[TMN] 18 operators now committed to pre-standards “5G” launches, http://the-mobile-network.com/2017/04/18-operators-now-committed-to-pre-standards-5g-launches/

[TMR] Global LTE Market (LTE-FDD, TD-LTE and LTE Advanced) - Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2013 – 2019, http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/lte-market.html

[TP] Mobile infrastructure spending to grow 8.3% in 2012, https://www.telecompaper.com/news/mobile-infrastructure-spending-to-grow-83-in-2012--893182

[TTN] How mobile infrastructure revenue reached $43 billion in 2016, https://www.telecomstechnews.com/news/2017/mar/14/mobile-infrastructure-revenue-reached-43b-in-2016/

[TTV] 5G revenues of $247bn predicted in 2025, http://www.telecomtv.com/articles/5g/5g-revenues-of-247bn-predicted-in-2025-13482/

[TW] Report: Asia, North America to Lead 5G Adoption through 2021, http://www.thewhir.com/web-hosting-news/report-asia-north-america-to-lead-5g-adoption-through-2021

[TW-2] 5G rollout plans, https://pbs.twimg.com/media/C5vQo1ZWYAA8Wxa.jpg

[UCI] Commercial 5G services forecast for launch in 2020, http://www.ucinsight.com/latestnews/commercial-5g-services-forecast-for-launch-in-2020/

[UKS] Progress on 5G, https://www.techuk.org/component/techuksecurity/security/download/1816?file=July_14_Plenary_5G_web_rev1.pdf&Itemid=182&return=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cudGVjaHVrLm9yZy9pbnNpZ2h0cy9tZWV0aW5nLW5vdGVzL2l0ZW0vMTgxNi11ay1zcGVjdHJ1bS1wb2xpY3ktZm9ydW0=

[UT] 5G, which promises blistering download speeds, is coming soon, https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/columnist/baig/2017/03/02/5g-coming-heres-why-you-should-care/98596058/

[VG] Global 20 leading LTE infrastructure companies 2013: competitive landscape analysis, https://www.visiongain.com/Report/976/Global-20-Leading-LTE-Infrastructure-Companies-2013-Competitive-Landscape-Analysis

[VP] Heavy Reading and TIA release new 5G operator survey, https://www.vanillaplus.com/2015/08/03/10413-5g-operator-survey/

[WB] Mobile cellular subscriptions, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS?end=2015&start=1960&view=chart

[WDO] Telco Cloud To Reach Critical Mass After 2020, Driven By 5G, https://www.wirelessdesignonline.com/doc/telco-cloud-to-reach-critical-mass-after-driven-by-g-0001

[WEF] Mobile subscriptions now outnumber people in the world, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/11/mobile-subscriptions-outnumber-people-world/

[WT] Wireless telecom infrastructure market worldwide – Trends and developments, https://wirelesstelecom.wordpress.com/tag/lte-contracts/

[WW] iGR Study Forecasts $104B Cost to Upgrade LTE Networks, Build Out 5G Network, https://www.wirelessweek.com/news/2015/12/igr-study-forecasts-104b-cost-upgrade-lte-networks-build-out-5g-network

[ZTE] Global LTE Market Analysis, http://wwwen.zte.com.cn/endata/magazine/ztetechnologies/2015/no3/articles/201505/t20150506_433777.html

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